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高二英语

Unit 13 Albert Einstein

作者:佚名    来源:转载    发布时间:2005年04月10日 点击数:

    Unit 13 Albert Einstein

    本单元重点单词

    communist n.共产主义者;共产主义的 professor n.教授

    rule vt.& vi. 统治;制度;规则 ruler n. 统治者,尺

    scientific adj. 科学的 darkness n.黑暗

    shy adj. 害羞的 content adj. 甘愿的;满意的

    discovery n. 发现 worldwide adj. 世界范围的

    cheque n. 支票 peace n. 和平

    prove. vt. 证明 bent adj. 弯的

    respect vt. 尊敬; 尊重 stick stuck stuck vt. 粘住;钉住;坚持

    leading adj. 最主要的;领导的 sadness n. 悲哀

    fuel n. 燃料 advance vt.&vi. 推进;促进;前进

    advanced adj. 高级的;先进的 mathematics n. 数学

    education n. 教育 technical adj. 技术的;工艺的

    本单元重点短语

    lead to 导致;通往 live on 为主食;靠生活

    work out 算出;解决 stick to 坚持

    take sides with sb. in sth. 站在……一边 further education 进修;深造

    word puzzle 字谜 fit the puzzle 与谜底相吻合

    get along with 进展;与……相处 all through one’s life 毕生;终生;某人一生

    be content to do sth. 愿意做某事 take/show/have an interest in sth. ……感兴趣

    lead/live a … way of life 过着……样的生活 from that time on 从那时候起

    bring sb. sadness ……带来痛苦

    一、 精彩回放

    (一) 重点单词

    1. puzzle

    用法一n. 难题;难以解释的东西

    1How life began is still a puzzle.

    生命是怎样起源的,现在还难以解释清楚。

    2The murder case was a puzzle to the police.

    这桩谋杀案对警方来说是一个难题。

    用法二 vt. 使人迷惑不解;使人感到莫名其妙

    例如:The sentence puzzled all of us.

    这句子使我们都困惑不解。

    2. rule

    用法一 n. 规则;规章;常规;惯例

    1Every student should obey the rules of the school.

    每个学生都必须遵守校规。

    2Bad weather is the rule in this season.

    天气不好是这个季节的惯例。

    用法二vt. 统治;治理

    1Don’t allow yourself to be ruled by emotion.

    不要感情用事。

    2When Germany was ruled by Hitler in the early 1930s, Einstein, who was a Jew, found it impossible to continue living in Germany.

    当希特勒在20世纪30年代初统治德国的时候,作为犹太人的艾因斯坦 发现继续住在美国是不可能的。

    【相关链接】

    1 rule the country 治国

    例如:He ruled the country with a firm hand.

    他以铁的手腕治理着国家。

    2 ruler n. 统治者;尺

    3. advance

    【用法一】vi. 前进;推进

    1A month has passed and the work has not advanced.

    一个月过去了,工作仍无进展。

    2The troops advanced forty miles.

    部队向前推进了40英里

    【用法二】vt. 促进;提升

    1She worked so well that her employer soon advanced her.

    她工作表现出色,老板很快提升了她。

    2The company advanced wages to him.

    公司给他提高了薪俸。

    【用法三】vt. 提前

    1The sports meet has been advanced from next Wednesday to this Thursday.

    运动会从下周星期三提前到本周星期四。

    2The government has already advanced the Golden Eagle Festival of this year.

    政府将本届金鹰节提前了。

    【用法四】n. 进步(=progress

    例如:Science has made great advances during the last ten years.

    近十年来科学有了很大的进步。

    【相关链接】adj. advance+d 先进的;高级的;高深的

    1Lao Li is an advanced worker.

    老李是一位先进工作者。

    2The professor is busy with advanced studies.

    教授正忙于高深的学术研究。

    4. bend bent; bent

    【用法一】vt. 使弯曲;低(头)

    1She bent her head and passed me.

    她低着头从我面前走过。

    2It’s hard to bend an iron bar(铁棒).

    要使一根铁棒弯曲很难。

    【用法二】vi. 弯曲;弯腰

    1All the students present bent forward to listen to him.

    所有在场学生都在全神贯注地听他讲话。

    2The long branches of willow bent over the lake.

    长长的柳枝弯垂在湖面上。

    【相关链接】

    1)bend one’s mind/oneself to 专心致志于

    例如:He kept bending his mind to his studies during the winter holiday because of the university entrance examination.

    因为要参加高考,他在寒假坚持安心学习。

    2)be bent on/upon 一心想做某事

    1He is bent on mastering English, determined to learn it thoroughly.

    他一心想掌握英语,下决心要彻底学好它。

    1He is bent on becoming an engineer. 他一心想当工程师。

    3)bend to/before 向…低头;屈服于

    例如:She is an active girl. She isn’t willing to bend to fate.

    她是一个积极向上的女孩子,她不甘心向命运低头。

    5. educate

    用法一 vt. 教育

    1Parents should educate their children to have good manners.

    父母应该教育孩子有礼貌。

    2He was born in America, but was educated in China. 他出生在美国,但是在中国受教育。

    【用法二】vt. 培养;使受学校教育

    例如::What the teacher should do is to educate his students to study well, work hard and keep fit. 教师应该做的是培养教育学生学习好,工作好,身体好。

    【相关链接】

    1) education n. 教育 (多作不可数名词)

    1She had a college education, so she is able to do all kinds of things well. 她受过大学教育。因此,她能做好各种各样的事情。

    2No country can afford to neglect the education of its young people.

    任何国家都不能疏忽对年轻人的教育。

    2) educational adj. 教育的;教育上的

    例如:In my opinion, the educational system must be reformed.

    依我看,教育制度必须改革。

    6. prove

    【用法一】 vt. 证实;证明(后接that/wh… -clause; sth.; sb.+Obj. Comp

    例如:I can prove it to be false.

    我能证明它是假的。

    【用法二】 link-v. 被发现是;结果是(其后接a.; n.; ad.; prep-phrase; to be+a.

    1The task proved to be more difficult than we’d thought.

    这任务证明比我们原设想的要难得多。

    2The concert proved a great success last night. 昨天晚上的音乐会取得了圆满成功。

    3As time went on Einstein’s theory proved to be correct and by 1914 he had become famous all over the world.

    随着时间的推移,爱因斯坦的理论证明是正确的,到1914年,他已闻名于世了。

    7. respect

    【用法】vt. 尊敬,尊重,敬佩;考虑,重视

    1Children should be taught to respect their parents.

    应该教育孩子们尊敬自己的父母。

    2The teacher always respects our choices. 老师常常尊重我们的选择。

    3We respected him for his courage.

    我们敬佩他的勇气。

    4He that respects not is not respected.

    不尊重别人的人,自己也得不到重视。

    【相关链接】

    1) n. 尊敬;尊重

    1We must have respect for the needs of the general readers.

    我们必须尊重普通读者的需要。

    2Our headmaster is held in great respect.

    我们的校长受到十分的尊敬。

    2) n.pl) 敬意

    例如:Please give my respects to your parents.

    请代向您的父母致意。

    8. course

    【用法一】 n. 过程;进行

    1In the course of my long life I’ve known many changes. 我在漫长的一生中饱经苍桑。

    2I didn’t sleep once during the entire course of my mother’s death.

    在我母亲去世期间,我没有睡过一次觉。

    【用法二】 n. 路线;航线

    1The course of the ship was due north. 这条船的航行方向是正北。

    2The Yellow River takes its course to the east.

    黄河向东流。

    【用法三】 n. 方针;路线

    例如:The wisest course is to adopt a middle course. 最明智的方针是走中间路线。

    【用法四】 n. 课程;科目

    例如:What he wants is to complete his college course. 他所想的是学完大学课程。

    【用法五】 n. 跑道;跑马场;高尔夫球场

    例如:More and more golf courses have been set up in China since 1976. 自一九七六年以来,越来越多的高尔夫球场在中国修建起来了。

    【相关链接】

    1) be) in course of … 正在…之中

    例如:The new railway station is in course of construction.

    那个火车站正在建设之中。

    2) in the course of … 在…的过程中(=during

    例如:In the course of the discussion, we’re very friendly to each other.

    在讨论的过程中,我们彼此很友好。

    3) in due course 在适当时机;最终

    例如:Your request will be dealt with in due course.

    你的要求将在适当时机予以处理。

    4) of course 自然;当然

    例如:—Do you study hard? Of course, I do.

    你用功吗?— 当然啦。

    (二)重要词组

    1. be content with sb./sth.

    be content with sb./sth. …满意(乐意、满足)某人/某事

    1”Don’t be content with your daughter, who has just won a small success.” my father said to mother. 父亲对母亲说,“不要对你的女儿太满意了,她刚刚取得小小的成就。”

    2Now that she has apologized, I am content with her.

    她既然已经道歉,我也就对她满意了。

    3We are not content with our present achievements.

    我们不能满足于目前的成就。

    【相关链接】

    1) be content to do sth. …乐意做某事

    例如:He’s perfectly content to live in the mountain and paints pictures all day. 他非常乐意住在山上,整天画着画。

    2) be satisfied with… 对…满意

    例如:I’m quite satisfied with the results in this mid-term examination. 我很满意这次期中考试的成绩。

    2. lead to

    lead to引起;造 成;导致(lead to 后可以跟名词、代词、动名词。)

    1) lead to sth. 引起某事;导致某事

    1Laziness leads to failure, while hard work leads to success.

    懒惰导致失败,而勤奋使人成功。

    2His research and studies led to his new discoveries in physics.

    他的研究导致他在物理上的新发现。

    2) lead to doing sth. 导致做某事

    1His persuasion led to our trying it once more.

    他的劝说导致我们的再次尝试。

    2Drinking may sometimes lead to fighting.

    酗酒有时可能引起斗殴。

    3) lead sb. to + n. 引某人到某地

    例如:Take the left road and it will lead you to the post office.

    走左边的路,它会引你到达邮局。

    4)lead to 也有“道路等通向(某处)”的意思。

    例如:I soon found a road leading to the foot of the mountain.

    我很快发现那条路通向山脚。

    5)cause (后可以跟名词、代词, 不可以跟动名词)。引起某事;使得

    1The dog ran into the road and caused an accident.

    狗跑到马路上,引起了一场交通事故。

    2What caused him to change his mind?

    什么使他改变了主意?

    3. compare notes

    compare notes谈论

    例如:Four American students are comparing notes on famous people.

    两个美国学生正在谈论着著名人士。

    【相关链接】

    1) compare notes on/about (就某事或某人进行)谈论(交换意见或互通感想)

    例如:They often compare notes on/about football.

    他们经常谈论足球。

    2) compare notes with (与某人)进行谈论(交换意见或互通感想)

    例如:Would you like to compare notes with me?

    我们来交换一下意见好吗?

    4. stick to 坚持(意见、看法);坚守(含有“执意不改”的含义,to 是介词,后跟名词或代词。)

    1No matter what you say, I shall stick to my plan.

    不管你说什么,我会坚持我的计划。

    2You have made a good decision, and you should stick to it.

    你们作出了一个好的决定,你们就应当坚持干下去。

    【相关链接】

    1) stick to one’s plan (decision; opinion; idea; promise ) 坚持某人的计划(决议、意见、承诺)

    2) stick to a post 坚守岗位

    3) stick to one’s word 遵守诺言

    4) stick to… 把…粘在…上

    5) stick sth. into (in, through ) sth. 把…扎(刺)进…

    6) stick sth. with ( on ) sth. 用…扎(刺)…

    7)insist on 坚持;坚决主张;坚决认为;坚决要求;定要(有坚持要干某事或强烈要求干某事的含义,后跟名词或动名词)

    1His daughter insisted on coming with him. 他的女儿坚持要同他一起去。

    2I’m afraid I have to insist on the return of my books at once.

    对不起,我要求你立即归还我的书。

    5. work out

    work out 算出;制订出;消耗完(精力等);按某种方式发展,结果;做大运动量的锻炼;

    1I can’t work out those problems.

    我解不出那些难题。

    2Can you work out how much it will cost to build the bridge?

    建那座桥需要多少资金你算得出吗?

    3He never seems to be worked out. 他好像永远不会疲乏似的。

    4How will things work out?

    事情将成什么样子呢?

    5I work out regularly to keep fit.

    我经常努力锻炼身体以保持健康。

    【相关链接1

    1) work sb. out 了解某人的禀性

    例如:I’ve never been able to work her out

    我一向无法了解她。

    2)work out a puzzle 弄明白疑问

    例如:Being students, we must stick to working out a puzzle.

    作为学生,我们必须坚持弄明白疑问。

    【相关链接2

    1) work as 充当…

    例如:These people can work as nurses when necessary.

    如果需要,这些人都可以充当护士。

    2) work away 不停地继续工作

    例如:Mary is still working away at her homework.

    玛丽还在不停地继续做她的家庭作业。

    3) work at 干(某活动);研究 (强调学会、掌握某方面的知识)

    例如:She is working at a difficult problem in mathematics.

    她在论证一道数学难题。

    4) work for “为…而工作”,for 表示目的.

    例如:We’re working for the people, so we must serve the people heart and soul.

    我们在为人民工作,我们必须全心全意为人民服务。

    5) work off 去掉;处理掉

    例如:You should work off your extra weight. 你应该减掉超出的体重。

    6) work on 从事(某工作)(强调忙于做某事)

    例如:He is working on a novel recently.

    最近他在忙着写一本小说。

    7) work one’s way/passage 做工挣钱

    例如:He worked his way through the college in Beijing.

    他靠做工在北京念完大学。

    8) work wonders 创奇迹;有惊人的效果

    例如:The medicine worked wonders for cancer. 这药对癌症有神奇的疗效。

    (三)难点句型

    1. By the time he was fourteen years old, he had learned maths all by himself.

    到他十四岁时,他已经自学了数学。

    【解析1】 这是一个复合句,by the time he was fourteen years old 是时间状语从句,修饰谓语had learnedby the time引出的内容若是表示过去,主句的谓语就用过去完成时。

    例如:By the time we got home, it had already stopped raining.

    我们回到家时,雨已经停了。

    【解析2】 learn sth. all by oneself 自学 (可与teach oneself sth. 换用)

    例如:We learn English all by ourselves. = We teach ourselves English.

    我们自学英语。

    2. Such was Albert Einstein, …

    爱因斯坦就是这样一个人,……

    【解析】 句中的such是代词,作“这”或“这些”解,指代上文所说的情况,谓语动词根据情况用单数或复数。

    1Such is my wish.

    这就是我的愿望。

    2Such was the situation we were facing.

    这就是当时我们面临的情况。

    3. But Einstein was able to prove that light coming from the stars was bent as it passed the sun.

    然而爱因斯坦却能证明从恒星上来的光线当其经过太阳时变弯曲了。

    【解析1】 that引导的从句作to prove的宾语,而这个宾语从句内又包含一个时间状语从句as it passed the sun

    【解析2】 coming from the stars-ing短语作定语,修饰名词light。这个-ing短语相当于一个定语从句:that came from the stars

    1The woman wearing a pair of glasses is our teacher of chemistry.

    那位戴眼镜的妇女是我们的化学老师。

    2The big tree lying across the road was blown down yesterday.

    横在路上的那棵树是昨天被风刮倒的。

    4. As a result, it appeared to scientists on earth that the stars had moved.

    因此,在地球上的科学家看来,恒星好像是移动了。

    【解析】 It appears/seems to sb. + that-clause 看起来;似乎是…,其中的it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的that引起的从句。在一般的情况下,后置的真正主语可以移到句首,用以取代it的位置。

    例如::It is our duty that we clean the classroom.

    打扫教室是我们的责任。

    5. …found it impossible to continue living in Germany.

    …他发现他不可能在德国继续生活下去了。

    【解析1】 found后的it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是不定式to continue…,宾语补足语是impossible。构成的句型是find + it +adj. ( for sb. )/n. + to do sth.

    1I found it possible to work out the problem without a computer.

    我发现有可能不用计算机而解出这道题目。

    2He came to find it really difficult for the peasants to earn their livings in the countryside.

    他已发现农民在农村里谋生真是困难。

    【解析2】 可用于这个句型的动词还有 feel; think 等。

    例如:I felt it necessary to point out my shortcomings.

    我觉得指出我的缺点是必要的。

    (四)语法精讲

    1. 主语从句

    主语从句在复合句中作主语。引导主语从句的词有:连词that, whether, 连接代词who, what, which,连接副词when, where, how, why等。例如:

    1What he wanted to see was an end to all the armies of the world.

    他所希望看到的是,世界上的一切军队全部消亡。

    2Who killed the scientist remains a question. 谁杀死了这位科学家,仍然是个谜。

    3Whether we can control the floods is still uncertain.

    我们能否控制住洪水,目前还不能肯定。

    4When the broadcast station will be ready is unknown.

    目前还不知道广播站将于何时竣工。

    5How they went to the USA is what I want to know.

    他们是怎样去美国的,这正是我想要知道的事情。

    上述例句中的主语从句都是放在句首。但在有些时候,主语从句放在句首时,特别是主语从句的词数超过谓语动词的词数时,会使句子显得笨重,会有“头重脚轻”之感。因此,我们常用it作形式主语,而把主语从句挪到句子的后面去。It作形式主语的句型有下列几种不同的搭配关系:

    1 It + be + adj.+ that-clause。当句型中的表语是necessary; strange; natural; impossible等形容词时,主语从句的谓语动词常用“(should+ 动词原形”。

    1It is certain that fuels like coal and oil cause a lot of pollution.

    像煤和石油这类燃料会引起大量的污染,这是肯定的。

    2It is necessary that we should first make sure that he is at home.

    我们有必要首先弄清楚他在不在家。

    2 It + be + n. + 主语从句。

    1It was a pity that you didn’t come last night.

    你昨天晚上没来,真可惜。

    2It’s a shame that you missed the wonderful performance because of your cold.

    你因为患感冒而错过那场精彩的演出真是遗憾。

    3 It is said / reported / hoped / believed / suggested /ordered / demanded … + that-clause 当句型中- ed分词是suggested; ordered; demanded等表示建议、命令、要求等意义的词时,that从句中的谓语动词要用“should +do”形式,should可以省去。

    1It was said that only three people in the world could understand it at that time.

    据说当时世界上只有三个人能够理解这一点。

    2It is hoped that you’ll be able to visit our city in the near future.

    希望你能在最近的将来访问我们的城市。

    4 It is known / decided / makes no difference / doesn’t matter + 连接代词或连接副词或从属连词引导的主语从句。

    1It is not yet decided when and where the test will be given.

    何时何地举行这次考试,还没有定下来。

    2It is well known to us all that Taiwan belongs to China.

    众所周知,台湾属于中国。

    3It makes no difference whether he will agree or not.

    他同不同意无关紧要。

    2. 主语从句中连接词的选择

    1 thatwhat的选择:that引导主语从句时,只起连接作用,在从句中不作任何成分,也无任何词义。what引导主语从句时,除起连接作用外,还在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分,并有其自身的意义。

    1What we can’t get seems better than what we have.

    我们无法得到的东西似乎比我们现有的东西好些。

    2What he said at the meeting astonished everybody present.

    他在会上的发言使每一个出席会议的人震惊。

    2 whether引导主语从句,常译作“是否”,

    1Whether we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.

    明天我们去不去野营将视天气而定。

    2Whether we go or not matters little.

    我们去不去关系不大。

    3It is not known whether she’ll come.

    不知道他是否会来。

    3 其他连接词的选择:

    ①连接代词:连接代词除what之外,还有who; whom; whose; which等,它们同what一样,除起连接作用外,还在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等,并有各自的意义。

    1Who will take the place of him hasn’t been decided yet.

    谁将替代他还末定。(who在从句中作主语)

    2Which team will win is not known.

    哪个队会赢还不知道。(which在从句中作定语)

    ②连接副词的选择

    连接副词主要有when; where; why; how等。它们除起连接作用外,还在从句中作状语,并有各自的意义。

    1When we’ll have the sports meeting will depend on the weather.

    什么时候召开运动会将视天气而定。(when在从句中作时间状语)

    2How he came here is a puzzle.

    他怎样到这儿来的还是个谜。(how在从句中作方式状语)

    (五)交际用语

    Asking for Identification (询问身份)

    1. Is it…? No, it’s not him / her.

    是他(她)吗?不是的,那不是他(她)。

    2. Is he / she…?

    他(她)是…?

    3. Who is he / she?

    他是(她)谁?

    4. What did he do?

    他过去是干什么的?

    5. It must be him /her.

    那一定是他(她)。

    二、活学活用

    请根据所学知识和提示补全下面几段对话。

    A

    背景介绍:夜晚参观天安门广场时,两个人见面后的一段对话。

    A: Oh, you are here!

    B: I have been here for nearly an hour. __ 1 _

    A: Yes, everywhere. _ 2 _

    B: Well, Beijing is wonderful but a bit confusing (弄不明白) to me.

    A: _ 3 _ It’s so big. What were you doing here? __4

    B: No, not at all. I was sightseeing. How magnificent Tian An Men Square is!

    A: Yes, very magnificent. _ 5 _

    B: Well, it’s amazing right now. See, lights everywhere. It’s just like daytime.

    B

    背景介绍:彼此见面后相互谈论学习计划。

    W: Hello, Jack! Haven’t seen you for a long time.

    M: Hi, Li Hua! 6

    W: You know, Jack, I’ve tried to call you for a long time.

    M: Me, too. 7

    W: Fine. How about yourself?

    M: Pretty good.

    W: Tell me, Jack. Last time I saw you, you were planning to go to law school, weren’t you?

    M: Yes, I guess I was. But later I changed my mind.

    W: Oh, really? But I remember you were very determined to go. 8

    M: Well, the simple reason is that, at the moment, doctors are badly needed in China. So I’ve decided to go to medical school instead.

    W: Medical school? That’s very interesting.

    M: And how about you, Li Hua? Do you still want to study business?

    W: No, I’ve also changed my mind.

    M: 9

    W: Um…, it’s a long story, but anyhow I’ve decided to study English instead.

    M: I don’t know why you changed your mind.

    W: 10 I believe it’ll play an important part in the realization of China’s Modernization programme.

    M: Great! Things have changed a lot since we saw each other last time.

    W: Yes. Let’s keep in touch.

    三、写作快速通关

    1. 国外佳作欣赏

    Why Dogs Always Bark at Cats?

    Once upon a time, there was a woman who adored dogs and cats. She had one dog and one cat and she was with them all the time, everywhere she went.

    One day, she took them for a walk along a small stream. When she returned home, she found that she had accidentally dropped one of her precious rings along the way.

    Knowing how much the ring meant to the woman, the dog and the cat decided to go back to look for it. They made the long journey back to the stream and began searching for the ring in the water.

    “There it is! There it is!” they rejoiced when they finally found her ring at the bottom of the water. The cat was the first to try. She stretched her arm down into the water, but it was too short to reach it. So the dog jumped in, fetched the ring up in his mouth, and swam back to the bank.

    As the cat and the dog made their way home, they were both very happy about having recovered their owner’s ring. However, when they arrived home the dog was made to stay outside the house. And the cat put the ring in her mouth and presented it to the woman.

    She was overjoyed and praised the cat saying, “What a very clever cat you are! It is a wonder that you were able to find my ring. You are so good!” She kissed and patted the cat over and over again.

    Listening from outside the door, the dog was jealous and angry at the cat and grumbled to himself, “It was I who jumped into the stream and I who deserves all the affection——but instead how unfairly I am treated!”

    Ever since then, never being able to forgive them, dogs have always held a grudge against cats. And that is why whenever a dog sees a cat it will bark fiercely and go chasing after it.

    Notes: adore vt. 喜爱 rejoice vi. 异常欣喜 jealous adj. 嫉妒

    grumble vi. 抱怨、发牢骚 affection n. 抚爱 grudge vi. 牢骚、抱怨

    2、日积月累

    1)高考常用词语

    accidentally 偶然地 precious 珍贵的 reach 够得着; 伸手去…… present ; 向……展示

    deserve 值得; 应得 fiercely 凶猛地; 猛烈地 search for 寻找 make one’s way 努力前进

    ever since then 从那时以来

    2)写作素材积累

    1 书信的开头和结尾。

    ①在信的开头常用以下客套语:

    How are you?

    How are you getting on recently?

    How are you getting on/along with…?

    当给别人复信时,可以用:

    Many thanks for your last kind letter.

    I must apologize for not replying to your last letter at once.

    ②在信的结尾时可以用以下语言:

    Best wishes/regards to you!

    Good luck to you!

    Please give my best wishes to…

    Looking forward to hearing from you!

    Wish you good health and happiness.

    2 正确使用连接(过渡)性词语,提高文章的连贯性。

    连接(过渡)性词语的使用是语言的连贯性得以实现的最常用手段。在句子与句子之间,段落与段落之间恰当地使用一些承上启下的连接(过渡)性词语是非常必要的。中学英语课本中应掌握的连接(过渡)性词语,可以归纳如下:

    表示起始关系的过渡性词语有first of all; according to; so far; as far as; to begin with; in my opinion等。

    表示时间顺序的过渡性词语有first; then; later; in the end; finally; at last; after that; since then; immediately; suddenly; soon等。

    表示空间顺序的过渡性词语有on the right/left; on one side of…; on the other side of…; at the top/foot/end of…; in the middle of…; in front of…; at the back of…等。

    表示并列关系的过渡性词语有and; or; also; too; as well as; neither…nor…; not only…but also…; either…or…; not…but…等。

    表示转折关系的过渡性词语有but; yet; however; while; on the contrary等。

    表示因果关系的过渡性词语有because; since; as; for; thanks to; thus; therefore; as a result of…; One reason is that…another reason is that…等。

    表示条件关系的过渡性词语有if; unless; as so long as; on condition that等。

    表示让步关系的过渡性词语有although; though; even if/though; in spite of; after all; in fact; what who, when, where, how… ever等。

    表示递进关系的过渡性词语有what’s more; further more; besides; what’s worse; to make the matter worse; also; still; on one hand…on the other hand…等。

    表示列举事实的过渡性词语有for example/instance; such as; take…for example; that is; as follows; in other words; that is to say; and so on等。

    表示总结性的过渡性词语有in short; in belief; in a word; on the whole; in general speaking等。

    表示过渡性的插入语有I think believe, suppose, imagine, guess…; I’m afraid; you know; As is known to us all; As we all know等。

    3、高考演习

    假如你叫Li Hua,你的弟弟Li Lei刚进入高中,他很想学好英语,却不知如何下手,请你就下面表格中的相关内容给他写一封信,告诉他如何学好英语。

    背诵课文

    帮助记忆有用的单词或句子,便于养成用英语思维的习惯

    多听多说

    可培养自己听说英语的能力,也能够帮助运用所学知识

    掌握所学的语法

    语法知识是使用的前提条件

    记日记

    可训练自己运用所学知识的能力

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    四、海外风情

    A Being A Welcome Guest

    When people in the U.S. have company or when they’re invited to formal or informal get-togethers, they usually make a point of trying to make others feel comfortable and relaxed. On the whole, they tend to be informal. Men shake hands, but usually only when they’re introduced. Male friends and business associates who haven’t seen each other in a while may shake hands when they say hello. Women usually don’t shake hands when being introduced to each other. When a woman and a man are introduced, shaking hands is up to the woman, Americans rarely shake hands to say good-bye, except on business occasions.

    American women are used to being independent. They are used to going to places by themselves, earning their own money, and often living alone. Sometimes they will ask men for help, but they usually don’t want to be protected. Since the women’s movement started, it’s not always clear whether women expect men to open doors or help them into their coats. American women may start conversations with men or even ask them to dance.

    There are a lot of Americans who don’t smoke or drink, and many who don’t want people to do those things in their houses. It’s always best to ask before you bring alcohol to a dinner or before you light up a cigarette, if you’re with people you don’t know very well. Non-smokers have become more militant about smoking in public places. Many restaurants, for instance, have established special sections for smokers.

    House guests may bring gifts when they come to visit, and they often offer to help in some way. As a guest, you may want to ask your host or hostess if there’s anything you can do to help in the kitchen. In many cases, the gesture is more important than actually helping,.

    (一) 做一名受欢迎的客人

    在美国,人们不论是招待客人还是被邀请参加正式或非正式集会,都尽量使别人舒适、放松。总体来看,他们更趋向随意自然。男士通常只在首次见面相互介绍时握手。多日末见的朋友或同行在打招呼时也可能握手。女子在被介绍时通常不握手。而当一男一女被介绍给予对方时,则由女子决定是否握手。除了在正式场合,美国人说再见时几乎从不握手,

    美国妇女通常很独立。她们独来独往, 挣自己的钱,过自己的日子。有时她们也会请求男子帮助,但她们不愿把男人当保护伞。自从妇女运动开始后,人们很难弄清女子是否还希望男人给他们开门或穿大衣。美国妇女会主动同男子搭话,甚至会主动请男子跳舞。

    很多美国人不吸烟,不喝酒,也不愿意别人在他们的房间里这样做。当你准备带酒赴宴或点燃香烟之前,最明智的做法是先问一声。不吸烟者对公共场所的烟民已越来越表示愤慨,许多餐馆不得不设置吸烟区。

    客人拜访时,会带为礼物,并经常主动提出帮忙。作为客人,你可以问问主人厨房里有什么事情可让你做。在许多情况下,这种姿态本身比实际行动更重要。

    B How Americans Treat Their Children?

    Parents’ attitude towards their children indicates cultural values. In the United States, it is very common for parents to put the newborn in a separate room that belongs to it only. On the one hand, this helps to preserve the parents’ privacy, a highly cherished value there; and on the other hand, it allows the child to get accustomed to having his or her own room, which is seen as a first step towards independence.

    Americans have traditionally held independence in high esteem. From early age, the American child is encouraged to make up his own mind; he is made to believe that he himself is the best judge of what he wants and what he should do. It is nothing unusual that children work for money in or outside their homes. That is looked upon as a first step to foster autonomy. Nine or ten-year-old children may deliver newspaper in their neighborhoods. Teenagers 13—19 years old can do various odd jobs such as babysitting to earn more money for themselves. American parents believe that making money at an early age helps children appreciate its value, learn to budget, and prepare themselves for future financial independence.

    Interestingly enough, American parents, though helping their children to act somewhat like adults, firmly refuse to let them enter the adult world. If the parents are about to entertain guests at home, they put the children early to bed. When they go to parties, they often leave the children with babysitters. They again shows the importance they attach to privacy. For them their business or social activities are their private reserve and no trespassing by children is allowed except when the invitation is extended to children.

    Upon reaching an appropriate age usually 1821, children are encouraged, but not forced to leave home. Young Americans regard it as a pride to live apart from their parents. They like to assert themselves by standing on their own foot.

    (二) 美国人是怎样对待子女的?

    父母对孩子的态度往往能揭示出一个国家的文化价值观。在美国,孩子出生后常常被另置一室,不和父母同住。这样便能使父母单独相处,不受孩子的干扰(美国人很重视这一点);同时,也使孩子习惯于拥有自己的房间,这被认为是孩子走向独立生活的第一步。

    美国人向来推崇独立、自主。孩子们从小就受到鼓励,要自己拿主意。父母还使孩子确信只有他们自己才最知道他们需要什么,应该做什么。孩子们为挣钱或是在家干活,或是出去“打工”,这在美国是司空见惯的,而且被看作是迈向独立、自主的第一步。9岁或10岁的孩子可以为邻里送报,20岁以下的青少年可以干诸如照看孩子等各种杂活来挣得较多的钱。美国父母认为从小挣钱不但可以使孩子懂得钱的价值,还能让他们学会计划用钱,为以后经济自立作好准备。

    有趣的是,美国父母虽然希望孩子能多多少少像大人那样行事,却坚决不让孩子进入大人的世界。如果父母在家招待客人,他们会让孩子早早上床睡觉;如果父母外出应酬,他们往往把孩子留在家中,请人照看。对他们来说,父母的事,无论是社交还是谈生意,都是他们的私事,孩子是不允许介入的,除非请柬上写明可以带孩子。

    到了一定的年龄(一般是1821),父母往往鼓励孩子离开家庭,但并不勉强。美国年轻人认为不和父母一起生活是值得自豪的事,他们喜欢独立自主以表明自身的价值。

    五、单元测试

    (一) 单项填空

    1. _________, we could do nothing.

    A. The case was such B. So was the case

    C. Such being the case D. Such was the case

    2.The girl was highly ________ handing in a cheque _________ $5,000 without accepting any reward. .

    A. prized for; for B. praised for; for

    C. praised for; of D. praised because of; on

    3.We got up late yesterday. ________ we got to the station, the train had left.

    A. By the time B. At the time

    C. During the time D. As soon as

    4.Du Vigneaud, a well-known American scientist, ________ the Nobel Prize _________ chemistry in 1955.

    A. accepted; for B. received; on

    C. won; for D. gained; for

    5.Leaders from different parts of the world took part in the discussion ________ the international treaty.

    A. which leads to B. leading to

    C. led to D. led to have

    6.I am trying ________ if we’ve sold more this year than last.

    A. to work out B. working out

    C. to work on D. working on

    7.______ your own idea, I support you and I’m sure of your success.

    A. Hold on B. Put up

    C. Go on with D. Stick to

    8.The weather on the weekend ________ than was expected.

    A. was proved hotter B. proved to be hot

    C. proved very hotter D. proved to be even hotter

    9.The manager ________ my parking space because I hadn’t paid taxes to them for quite a long time.

    A. took along B. took down

    C. took away D. took in

    10. _______ I have will be yours sooner or later.

    A. That B. Whatever

    C. No matter whatever D. No matter that

    11.I’ll show you a store _______ you may buy all _______ you need.

    A. that; that B. which; that

    C. where; which D. in which; /

    12.Those who are not _____ with the progress they have made will have greater success.

    A. proud B. anxious

    C. popular D. content

    13.Premier Zhu ______ to be unforgettable in the hearts of the Chinese people.

    A. proved B. regarded

    C. thought D. considered

    14.He feels _______ to help his classmates.

    A. it his duty B. his duty

    C. that his duty D. his duty that

    15. The restaurant is open every day _______ Monday.

    A. besides B. except for

    C. except D. except that

    (二) 完形填空

    I’m not a computer expert. I have been in the field for only a short time. I never learned much in the 1 of the science or maths. And I am quite puzzled 2 things like engineering or electronic.

    Then why am I able to write 3 computer? I can write on this subject because of these shortcomings. The last two years of learning have 4 an ordeal for me. By hard work I have managed to learn enough to use computers fairly well, and to work with people who know a great deal more 5 I. Since I have learned all 6 at such personal cost. I would like to 7 my knowledge with others. More and more people want to know about computers, and want to know quickly.

    The best way to learn is 8 a course. However, many people don’t have the time for this. They will have to find 9 way to get some basic information. I hope to be able to help

    _10 by writing about some of the things I have learned myself.

    I have a home computer 11 which I have learned in my own time. I have used it like a home study course. I have sat down 12 it day after day, night after night. I have forced it to give _13 some of its secrets. Now I can use it to do some of the work 14 I get paid for And I can do this work in my own home, instead of in an office. Many people may soon be 15 on a computer at home, just as many now take in other people’s typing.

    Some things about computers are easier than you may 16 . First, computers are logical. Things that at first seem difficult will 17 sense to you after you learn the rules. Second, it is really not hard to learn 18 to use today’s machines. You don’t need to have a great brain. But you do have to learn to think in new ways. And you do have to keep a good 19 of information in your head. Finally, there are many people around _20 are really enthusiastic about computers. These people are always happy to be of help.

    1. .A. way B. manner C. means D. method

    2. A. at B. with C. over D. by

    3. A. on B. about C. of D. over

    4. A. to be B. been C. had D. for

    5. A. like B. as C. than D. but

    6. A. this B. it C. these D. those

    7. A. spare B. give C. offer D. share

    8. A. to take B. to get C. to find D. to have

    9. A. an other B. some other C. the other D. one another

    10. A. it B. us C. them D. you

    11. A. with B. over C. on D. about

    12. A. with B. by C. over D. beside

    13. A. away B. off C. in D. up

    14. A. which B. what C. this D. that

    15. A. using B. working C. operating D. running

    16. A. fear B. afraid C. frighten D. terrify

    17. A. take B. make C. feel D. work

    18. A. little B. much C. enough D. a lot of

    19. A. few B. little ` C. enough D. bit

    20. A. who B. whom C. which D. them

    (三) 阅读理解

    A

    Every year, when the Nobel Prizes are announced there are many articles written about the winners. This is because winning the Nobel Prize is considered by most people the highest honor that can be achieved in certain particular fields of work such as chemistry, physics, medicine, and literature. There is also a Nobel Peace Prize.

    The curious thing about these prizes is that they were started by a man who did a great deal to help the science of destruction (破坏)! Alfred Nobel was a Swede and he lived from 1833 to 1896. Among the things which he invented was dynamite (炸药).

    Nobel felt a need to do something “noble” for the world. He loved peace and had a plan he thought would prevent war. By the way, besides being a great scientist, Nobel was also a poet. He thought that literature and science were too important in human progress.

    When he died, Nobel left a fund of $9,000,000. The money was to be used in giving prizes to those who made outstanding achievements in chemistry, physics, medicine, literature and world peace.

    1. It’s clear that _______.

    A. the first Nobel Prize was awarded in the 18th century

    B. the Nobel Prize can make some noble persons

    C. the Nobel Prize was named for Alfred Nobel, a great scientist and inventor

    D. Nobel died at the age of sixty-three

    2. According to the passage, there are five different prizes: ________.

    A. three in science and two in medicine

    B. for scientists who are famous

    C. three in various sciences, one for literature, and the Peace Prize

    D. for those who love science and peace

    3. In the third paragraph, the word “noble” suggests that _______.

    A. Nobel laid emphasis on his research of destruction

    B. Nobel had great hopes on scientists

    C. there would be wars in the world

    D. Nobel felt sorry for the use of his inventiondynamite in wars

    B )

    How People Communicate

    You speak, write letters or make telephone calls. Your words carry messages.

    People communicate with words.

    Do you think you can communicate without words? A smile on face shows you are happy or friendly. Tears in your eyes tell others that you are sad. When you raise your hand in class, the teacher knows you want to say something or ask questions. You shake your head, and people know you are saying “No”. You nod and people know you are saying “Yes”.

    Other things can also carry messages. For example, a sigh at the bus stop helps you to know which bus to take. A sign on the wall of your school helps you to find the library. Sings on doors tell you where to go in or out. Have you ever noticed that there are a lot of signs around you and that you receive messages from them all the time?

    People can communicate in many other ways.

    TVs and radios and films all help us to communicate with others. They all help us to know what is going on in the world and what other people are thinking about.

    4. The writer thinks _______.

    A. People can only communicate with words. B. People can’t communicate with words.

    C. People can communicate without words. D. People can’t communicate with smiles.

    5. Which of the following is not true?

    A. Words carry messages. B. Facial expressions carry messages.

    C. Signs carry messages. D. TVs and radios and films don’t carry any message.

    6. Choose the best title for this passage from the following choices.

    A. Communication is Difficult. B. People Can Communicate in Many Ways.

    C. Communication is Easy. D. Communication and words

    C

    Brazil has become one of the developing world’s great successes in reducing population growthbut more by accident than design. While countries such as India have made joint efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had better result without reality trying, says George Martine at Harvard.

    Brazil’s population growth rate has dropped from 2.99% a year between 1951 and 1960 to 1.93% a year between 1981 and 1990, and Brazilian women now have only 2.7 children on average. Martine says this figure may have fallen still further since 1990, an achievement that makes it the envy of many other Third World Countries.

    Martine puts it down to, among other things, soap operas (连续剧) and installment (分期付款) plans introduced in the 1970s. Both played an important, although indirect, role in lowering the birth rate. Brazil is one of the world’s biggest producers of soap operas. Globo, Brazil’s most popular television network, shows three hours of soaps six nights a week, while three others show at least one hour a night. Most soaps are based on wealthy characters living the high life in big cities.

    “Although they have never really tried to work in a message towards the problems of reproduction (生育), they describe middle and upper class valuesnot many children, different attitudes towards sex, women working,” says Martine. “They sent this message to all parts of Brazil and made people realize other patterns of family life and other values. Which were put into a very attractive package.”

    7. According the passage, many Third World Countries _______.

    A. would soon join Brazil in controlling their birth rate

    B. haven’t yet found an effective measure to control their population

    C. neglect (忽视) the role of TV plays in family planning

    D. haven’t done anything important to birth control

    8.The phrase “puts it down to” is closed in meaning to _______.

    A. finds it a reason for B. looks it on as

    C. compares it to D. considers the cause of it to be

    9.Soap operas have helped in lowering Brazil’s birth rate because ______.

    A. they have gradually changed people’s way of life

    B. people are drawn to their attractive package

    C. they make birth control measures popular

    D. they keep people sitting long hours watching TV

    10.What is Martine’s conclusion about Brazil’s population growth?

    A. The desire for consumption (消费) helps to reduce birth rate.

    B. Consumption patterns and reproduction patterns are contradictory (相矛盾的).

    C. A country’s production is limited by its population growth.

    D. The increase in birth rate will increase consumption.

    11.Which is the best title of this passage?

    A. Soap Operas And Installment Plans B. Brazil: Reducing Birth Rate by Accident

    C. Learn from Brazil, the Third World Countries D. Brazil: the Developing World’s Success

    D

    Edmund Halley was an English scientist who lived over 200 years ago. He studied the observations of comets (慧星) which other scientists had made. The orbit (轨道) of one particular comet was a very difficult mathematical problem. He could not figure it out. Neither could other scientists who dealt with such problem.

    However, Halley had a friend named Newton, who was a brilliant (有才气的) mathematician. Newton thought he had already worked out that problem, but he could not find the papers on which he had done it. He told Halley that the orbit of a comet had the shape of an ellipse (椭圆形).

    Now Halley set to work. He figured out the orbits of some of the comets that had been observed by scientists. He made a surprising discovery. The comets that had appeared in the years 1531, 1607, and 1682 all had the same orbit. Yet their appearances had been 75 to 76 years

    apart (相隔).

    This seemed very strange to Halley. Three different comets followed the same orbit. The more Halley thought about it, the more he thought that there had not been three different comets, as people thought. He decided that they had simply seen the same comet three times. The comet had gone away and had come back again.

    It was an astonishing idea! Halley felt certain enough to make a prediction (预言) of what would happen in the future. He decided that this comet would appear in the year in 1758. There were 53 years to go before Halley’s prediction could be tested.

    In 1758 the comet appeared in the sky. Halley did not see it, for he had died some years before. Even since then that comet has been called Halley’s comet, in his honor.

    12. Edmund Halley figured out the orbit of ______.

    A. some different comets appearing several times B. the same comet appearing at different times

    C. three different comets appearing three times D. several comets appearing at the same time

    13. Halley made his discovery _______.

    A. by doing experiments B. by means of his own careful observation

    C. by using the work of other scientists D. by chance

    14. This passage in general is about ______.

    A. Halley and other scientists B. the orbit of a comet

    C. Newton and Halley D. Halley and his discovery

    15. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?

    A. Newton figured out the orbit of the comet. B. Halley figured out the orbit of the comet first.

    C. Newton gave Halley some help. D. Halley died before 1758.

    E

    How to Improve Our Reading

    Reading is thought to be a kind of conversation between the reader and the text. The reader puts questions, as it were, to the text and gets answers. In the light of these he puts further questions, and so on.

    For most of the time this “conversation” goes on below the level of consciousness. At times, however, we become aware of it. This is usually when we are running into difficulties, when mismatch is occurring between expectations and meaning. When successful matching is being experienced , our questioning of the text continues at the unconscious level.

    Different people converse with the text differently. Some stay very close to the words on the page; others take off imaginatively from the words, interpreting, criticizing, analyzing and examining. The former represents a kind of comprehension, which is written in the text. The latter represents higher levels of comprehension. The balance between these is important, especially for advanced readers.

    There is another conversation which from our point of view is equally important, and that is to do not with what is read but with how it is read .We call this a “process” conversation as opposed to a “content” conversation. It is concerned not with meaning but with the strategies (策略) we employ in reading. If we are advanced readers our ability to hold a content conversation with a text is usually pretty well developed. Not so our ability to hold a process conversation. It is precisely this kind of conversation that is of importance when we are seeking to develop our reading to meet the new demands being placed upon us by studying at a higher level.

    16. Reading as a kind of conversation between the reader and the text becomes conscious only when .

    A. the reader’s expectations agree with what is said in the text

    B. the reader has trouble understanding what the author says

    C. the reader asks questions and gets answers

    D. the reader understands a text very well

    17. At a lower level of comprehension, readers tend to ______.

    A. read a text slowly B. read without thinking hard

    C. interpret a text in their own way D. concentrate on the meaning of words only

    18. A “process” conversation has to do with ______.

    A. the application of reading strategies

    B. matching our expectations with the meaning of a text

    C. the development of our ability to check the details

    D. determine the main idea of a text

    19. According to the passage, it is of great importance for readers at a higher level to maintain a balance between _.

    A. conscious and unconscious levels of comprehension

    B. the readers’ expectations and the meaning of a text

    C. lower and higher level of comprehension

    D. interpreting and criticizing a text

    20. If we want to develop our reading ability at an advanced level, we should __ .

    A. learn to use different approaches in reading different text

    B. make our reading process more conscious

    C. pay more attention to the content of a text

    D. take a critical attitude towards the author’s ideas

    (四) 短文改错

    Today if you go on board the ship and 1_____________

    the plane, you will see signs and notice that 2_____________

    will give you any useful information and 3_____________

    warnings. If you will come by air, you will see 4_____________

    a notice on which says: NO SMOKING; FASTEN 5_____________

    BELTS. When the plane is well up in air, 6_____________

    the light behind this notice is turning off. 7_____________

    You are then allowed to smoke and must 8_____________

    unfasten your seat-belt. The notice will appear 9_____________

    again while the plane is about to come down. 10____________

    Unit 14 Satellites

    本单元.重点单词

    personally adv. 就自己而言 exhibition n. 展览;展览会

    camera n. 照相机;摄像机 broad adj. 宽的;宽大的

    fold vt. 折叠;合拢 unfold vt. 展开;打开

    connect vt. 连接;把…联系起来 circle n. 圆圈;(天体运动的)轨道

    signal n. 信号;暗号 object n. 物;物体

    panel n. 控制板;电池帆板 globe n. 地球仪;地球

    direction n. 方向;方位 position n. 位置

    organization n. 组织;机构 dust n. 灰尘;尘土

    sputnik n. 前苏联人造地球卫星 height n. 高;高度

    question vt. 询问;质问 pilot n. 飞行员

    balloon n. 气球 mention vt. 提到;说起

    length n. 长;长度;一段 attempt vi. 试图;尝试

    本单元.重点短语

    as \ so far as (表示程度、范围)就…;尽… dozens of 数十个

    carry out 开展;执行;实现;完成 make an effort to do sth. 试图(努力)做某事

    fall back to the earth 落回地球 scientific equipment 科学设备

    make electricity 发电 go into 参加;进入;深入研究;从事

    at the speed of… 以…的速度 be likely to do sth. 可能做某事

    satellite pictures 卫星云图 keep out of 避开;躲开

    with the help of 在…的帮助下 research station 研究站

    look into 调查;研究 send…back to 把…送回

    attempt to do sth. 试着做某事 have…on show… …在展览中;…在展出

    put…away 放好;储蓄;把…放在一边

    一、精彩回放

    (一)重点单词

    1. personally adv.

    【用法】亲身,亲自,本人;就本人而言

    1The plans were personally inspected by the headmaster.

    这些计划由校长亲自审阅过。

    2I don’t know him personally, but I’ve read his books.

    我对他本人并不了解,但我看过他的书。

    3Speaking personally, I’m in favour of the proposal.

    就本人而言,我赞成这个建议。

    【相关链接】

    personal adj. 个人的;私人的;人身的

    1She made a personal donation to the fund.

    她以个人名义向基金会捐款。

    2Please leave us alone, we have something personal to discuss.

    请让我们单独在一起,我们有点私事要谈。

    3The argument was becoming too personal.

    那场争论已演变成过分的人身攻击了。

    personal affairs 私事 personal pronoun 人称代词

    personal attack 人身攻击 personal beliefs 个人信仰

    personal history 个人履历 personal opinion 个人意见

    personal income 个人收入 personal needs 个人需要

    personal account 个人帐户 personal letter 私人信件

    personal interests 个人利益 personal interview 亲自会见

    2. attempt

    【用法一】 n. 尝试;努力

    1John made no attempt to escape/at escaping.

    约翰并末图谋逃跑

    2They failed in all their attempts to climb the mountain.

    他们攀登那座山的一切尝试都失败了。.

    【用法二】 vt. 试图;尝试;企图

    1The doctor attempted to persuade him to give up smoking, but he wouldn’t.

    医生劝他戒烟,但他不听。

    2Don’t attempt impossible things.

    不要尝试做不可能做的事。

    3I attempted to speak but was told to be quiet.

    我想发言,但遭到拒绝。

    【相关链接】

    1) try n. 尝试

    1Let me have a try at it.

    让我试它一试。

    2He had three tries at mending the lock but gave it up finally.

    他把那个锁试着修了三次以后,放弃不修了。

    2) try to do sth. 试着(尽力、试图)做某事

    1Please try to understand what I said just now.

    请试着理解我刚才说的话。

    2The little child tried to move the chair but couldn’t.

    那小孩试图搬动椅子,但不行。

    3She tried not to think about her bitter life in the past.

    她尽力不去想过去那段苦难的生活。

    3) try doing sth. 尝试做某事

    1I tried sending her flowers but she didn’t accept them at all.

    我试着给她送花,但她根本不接受。

    2We tried growing our own vegetables but soon found it was harder than we’d imagined.

    我们试着自己种菜,可是很快就发现比原来设想的难。

    3. circle

    【用法一】n. 圆,圆周;圈,环;轨道

    1We’ve booked seats in the circle.

    我们预订了楼厅包厢的座位。

    2Do you know something about the sun’s circle?

    关于太阳的运行轨道,你知道一些情况吗?

    3The students are sitting in a circle, listening to the teacher’s story.

    学生们团团围着老师坐着,听她讲故事。

    【用法二】 vt.& vi. 环绕;盘旋;围绕;画圈

    1The wolves circled the man.

    那些狼围住了那个人。

    2The farm was circled with a fence.

    农场四周围上了篱笆。

    3Please circle the numbers of the correct answers.

    请在正确答案下画上圈。

    4. connect

    【用法】 vt.& vi. 连接;联合;接通

    1Where does the cooker connect with the gas-pipe?

    煤气炉在什么地方与煤气管衔接?

    2A good student must connect what he reads with what he sees around him.

    一个好学生必须把学到的知识与周围看到的事物联系起来。

    3I cannot connect the two things in mind. 我没办法把这两件事联系起来。

    【相关链接】

    1) connect … up 接起来;接上

    例如:Connect the fridge up to the electricity supply.

    接通冰箱的电源。

    2) connect with (车船等 在时间上)相接

    1The early bus from the city connects with the 9:50 train.

    城里发出的这趟班车与9:50的火车衔接。

    2The next flight connects with a flight for Houston.

    下一班飞机可以接上飞往休斯敦的班机。

    3) connection

    例如:How long will the connection of the telephone take?

    安装电话机与总机接通要多长时间?

    4) connections 亲属;亲戚

    例如:She is American but also has Chinese connections.

    她是美国人,但也有一些中国亲属。

    5) in connection with sb. /sth. …与某人/某事有关

    例如:I am writing to you in connection with your job application.

    我写这封信,是与你求职一事有关的。

    5. direction

    【用法一】 n. 方向;指导,指点

    1The plane is flying in a northerly direction.

    飞机正在朝北飞去。

    2He did the work under my direction.

    他在我的指导下做这件事。

    3He feels the need for firm direction.

    他感到需要有人好好地指点自己。

    【用法二】 n. pl)指南,说明,说明书;操作规则,(信件、包裹等上的)姓名地址

    1I gave him full directions to enable him to find the house.

    我向他作了详细说明,好让他能找到那房子。

    2Simple directions for assembling the model are printed on the box.

    盒上印有装配模型的简要说明书。

    3The parcel was returned to the sender because the directions were incorrect.

    包裹因姓名地址有误而退给了寄件人。

    【用法四】

    【相关链接】

    1) in one direction 朝一个方向

    例如:Tom went off in one direction and Harry in another.

    汤姆朝一个方向走,哈里朝另一个方向走。

    2) in all directions (=in every direction) 四面八方;各方面

    例如:When the police arrived, the crowd scattered in all directions.

    警察一到,人群就向四面八方散开了。

    3) under the direction of…. 在…指导下

    例如:They’re operating the machine under the direction of an old worker.

    他们在一位老工人指导下正开着机器。

    6. fold

    【用法】vt& vi. 折叠;合拢 folding a.; unfold 展开,打开)

    1To save place, we fold up the table after each meal.

    每次吃完饭后,为了空出地方,我们把桌子折叠起来。

    2The teacher folded up the map of the world after the geography lesson.

    地理教师上完课之后,将世界地图折叠好。

    【相关链接】

    1) folding bed 折叠床 4) folding bicycle 折叠自行车

    2) folding chair 折叠椅 5) folding ruler 折尺

    3) folding door 折叠门 6) folding fan 折扇

    7. globe

    【用法一】 n. 地球,地球仪;球状物;世界

    1That film star is traveling all round the globe.

    那个电影明星正在进行环球旅行。

    2The teacher brought a globe to the class.

    老师拿来了一个地球仪给学生上课。

    3The oil-lamp needs a new globe.

    这个油灯需配个新的灯罩。

    4The program will take you to travel around the globe.

    这个节目将带着你周游世界。

    8. mention

    【用法一】 vt. 提及;;提到;述及;谈及

    1He mentioned their interest in sport.=He mentioned that they were interested in sport.

    他提到过他们对运动感兴趣。

    2The professor mentioned the subject but didn’t go into details.

    教授提到了这个问题,但没有详细说明。

    3Mary mentioned that she had been to London.

    玛丽谈过她曾去过伦敦。

    【用法二】 n. (口头或书面)提及某人或某事物);简述

    1He made no mention of your request.

    他没有提到你的要求。

    2Did the concert get a mention in the paper?

    报纸上报道了这次音乐会吗?

    【相关链接】

    1) Don’t mention it. (这是答复别人道谢时的客套语) 不用谢;没关系;不要客气

    1:——Thank you very much. 非常感谢。

    ——Don’t mention it. 不用谢。

    2:——I am sorry to have troubled you. 对不起,麻烦您了。

    ——Don’t mention it. 没关系。

    2) not to mention( =without mentioning) 更不用说;还不算

    1He can play basketball, volleyball and football, not to mention table-tennis.

    他会打篮球、排球、踢足球,更不用说乒乓球了。

    2He has a villa and an expensive car in Shanghai, not to mention a big house in his home town.

    他在上海有一座别墅和一部昂贵的汽车,且不说在老家有一栋大房子了。

    9. pull

    【用法一】 n. 拖;拉;牵;引力,(人的行为、事业等)影响力、吸引力

    1A pull on the rope will make the bell ring.

    一拉绳子铃就响。

    2The tides depend on the pull of the moon. It’s because of the moon’s pull on the sea.

    潮汐是月亮引力的结果,这是因为月球对海洋的引力。

    3He felt the pull of the countryside again.

    他又感到了农村生活的吸引力。

    【用法三】 vt.& vi. 拉;拔;扯;拖;牵

    1Would you rather push the cart or pull it?

    你愿意推车还是愿意拉车?

    2In a tug-of-war, the competitors pull as hard as they can.

    在拔河比赛中,双方队员都拼命地拉。

    3He pulled me by the ears. =He pulled my ears.

    他扯我的耳朵。

    【相关链接】

    1) pull a face 拉长了脸;显出严肃或忧愁

    例如:At the mention of the name he pulled a long face.

    一提到名字,他的面孔就立刻板了起来。

    2) pull down 拆掉(房屋等);使(身体)虚弱

    1His long illness had pulled him down.

    他因长期患病身体很虚弱。

    2The theatre he used to visit had been pulled down.

    他过去常去的那家戏院已经拆掉了。

    3) pull off 脱(袜子、手套等)

    例如:The young man pulled off his socks and threw them on a chair.

    这位年轻人脱下袜子,扔在椅子上。

    4) pull on 穿戴(袜子、手套等)

    例如:The boy can pull on his stockings himself.

    这男孩可以自己穿(长)袜子了。

    5) pull one’s leg 开玩笑

    例如:He is fond of making and telling jokes. He often pulls other’s leg.

    他是一个爱开玩笑的人,他经常开别人的玩笑。

    6) pull oneself together 振作起来

    例如:Pull yourself together. Hold up your head.

    打起精神,抬起头来。

    7) pull through 渡过危机;从(重病中)恢复过来

    1He is still ill, but the doctor is sure he will pull through.

    他还病着,但医生相信他一定会恢复健康。

    2We were in great trouble last month. But we managed to pull through.

    上个月,我们遇到了很大麻烦,但是我们终于渡过了难关。

    8) pull up (车子)停下;拔掉

    1The driver pulled up at the traffic lights.

    司机在红绿灯前把车停住。

    2Be careful. Don’t pull up the young plants in the fields.

    小心点,不要把地里的幼苗拔掉了。

    (二)重要词组

    1. as/so far as

    as/so far as远到;直至所提到之处;达至…程度;就…;尽… (后跟一个表示程度的状语从句,这时as far as so far as 意思相同。)

    1He walked as far as the post office.

    他一直走到邮局。

    2So far as I know, he will be away for three months.

    就我所知,他将离开这里三个月。

    3So far as I know / As far as I can see, that is highly unlikely.

    就我所知/依我看,那是极不可能的。

    2. carry out

    carry out实施;执行;落实;贯彻;完成;实现;进行

    1I had some difficulty in carrying out the plan.

    我在执行这个计划中有些困难。

    2Never make a promise that you are not ready to carry out.

    永远不要许下你不准备实现的诺言。

    3The scientist was carrying out some interesting experiments.

    这位科学家正在进行一些有趣的实验。

    4John listened attentively and carry out the teacher’s instructions.

    约翰聚精会神地听讲,并且按老师的指示去做。

    【相关链接】

    1) carry about 随身携带

    例如:Don’t forget to carry some money about when you’re taking a journey.

    当你旅行的时候,别忘了身上带些钱。

    2) carry away 运走;拿走;冲走;使入迷;冲昏头脑

    1The wooden bridge was carried away by the flood this August.

    这座木桥在今年八月份被洪水冲走了。

    2The pop music carried the girl away.

    流行歌曲使那女孩入迷了。

    3) carry back 运回;拿回;使回想起

    1Please carry the dictionary back to its place after using it.

    词典用过后,请放回原处。

    2I went to my home town during the summer holidays. The sight of the place carried me back to my childhood.

    暑假期间我回到了家乡,看到那个地方使我回忆起自己的童年时光。

    4) carry forward 推进;发扬

    1As everybody knows, the revolutionary tradition should be carried forward.

    众所周知,革命传统应当发扬。

    2They are trying their best to carry forward the enterprise.

    他们千方百计地推进企业的发展。

    5) carry on 继续;进行;坚持下去

    1Carry on working while I’m away. 我不在的时候,要继续工作。

    2We’ll carry on our conversation tomorrow.

    我们明天将继续进行会谈。

    6) carry up 送上;供养

    1This field can carry up to 50 cows.

    这块地能供养多达50头奶牛的草。

    2Man-made satellites are carried up into space by rockets.

    人造地球卫星是由火箭送上天空的。

    3. connect with/to 相连;结合;衔接;接通电话(电源等)

    1The 9:00 a. m. train from Nanjing connects with the 12:10 p. m. from Zhuzhou.

    上午九时自南京开出的火车可接上下午12:10分自株洲开出的列车。

    2A new highway connects Beijing with Zhuhai.

    北京与珠海有新高速公路连接了。

    【相关链接】

    1) be connected with/to 与…相连(有关、衔接)

    1She is connected with a noble family.

    她是某名门望族的亲戚。

    2The visit of the police was connected with the lost mobile.

    警察的来访与丢失的手机有关。

    3The thigh bone is connected to the hip bone.

    股骨连着髋骨。

    2) join 连接(强调形体清楚的分离事物之间的结合,如田与田,国与国之间的互相连接)。

    1The new railway has joined our town to Beijing.

    新铁路把我们这个城镇和北京连接起来了。

    2Join the ladder to the other so that you can climb high enough.

    把这个梯子与那个接起来,这样你就能爬得高些。

    3) unite 连接;团结(指很紧密地结合,强调结合成为新的统一体,如指把两部分或两个国家结合成一体。还可以表示“团结”的意思。

    1England and Scotland united in 1706.

    英格兰与苏格兰于1706年统一了。

    2We must unite as many people as possible.

    我们要团结尽可能多的人。

    4. dozens of

    dozens of 数十的;几十

    1I have been to Shanghai dozens of times.

    我已经去过上海好几十次了。

    2Because of SARS, dozens of doctors and nurses have been sent to work in Beijing.

    因为非典,好几十位医护人员被派往北京工作。

    ★当dozen等词(score, hundred, thousand, million)表示一种约数时,有以下几种方式与其它词结合使用。

    dozens + of + 复数名词

    例如:Today there are more than 100 nations in this group and dozens of satellites have been put into space. 今天这个集团有100多个国家,有几十颗卫星送入太空。

    several/ a few/ some/ many + dozen 等词的单数形式 + 复数名词。

    例如:Yesterday she bought several dozen balloons. 昨天她买了好几打气球。

    several/ a few/ some/ many + dozen等词的单数形式 + of + 指示代词 + 复数名词∥形容词性物主代词 + 复数名词∥定冠词 + 复数名词∥复数意义人称代词宾格 (在此种用法中,million 要用复数形式)

    1I want several dozen of these pencils.

    这样的铅笔我要几打。

    2some millions of the American students上百万的美国学生

    ④当dozen等词表示确切数目时,有以下几种方式。

    ⑴数词 + dozen等词的单数形式 + 复数名词。

    例如:Shortly after the accident, two dozen policemen were sent to the spot to keep order.

    事故后不久,24个警察被派往出事地点维持秩序。

    数词 + dozen等词的单数形式 + of +指示代词 + 复数名词∥形容词性物主代词 + 复数名词∥定冠词 + 复数名词∥复数意义人称代词宾格

    1two dozen of my books 我的24名工人

    2three dozen of them \ \ 它们中的36

    【相关链接】

    1) dozens of people 数十人

    2) hundreds of people 数百人

    3) thousands of people 数千人

    4) tens of thousands of people 数万人

    5) hundreds of thousands of people 数十万人

    6) millions of people 数百万人

    5. in space

    in space 在空间;在太空

    1The earth moves in space.

    地球在太空中运行。

    2Walking in space must be very exciting.

    在太空中行走一定十分有趣。

    注意:in the sky 在空中;in the universe 在宇宙中space作“太空,宇宙空间”解时是不可数名词,前面没有冠词。

    6. look into

    look into调查;研究;向……里面看

    1A working group has been set up to look into the problem.

    已成立了工作组调查该问题。

    2His disappearance is being looked into by the police.

    他失踪一事警方正在调查。

    3The technicians are looking into the market.

    技术员正在研究市场问题。

    【相关链接】

    1 look after 照看;照料;照顾

    例如:The nurses are carefully looking after their patients.

    护士精心照料病人。

    2 look as if 看起来好像;似乎是

    例如:It looks as if he knew nothing about her.

    看起来好像他很不了解她似的。

    3 look at 看;看待;检查;考虑

    1The child looked curiously at us.

    那孩子好奇地看着我们。

    2He began to look at his research work in a different way.

    他开始用别的方式看待他的研究。

    4 look back 回想;回顾

    1They like to look back on those unforgettable years.

    他们喜欢回想那些难忘的岁月。

    2When I looked back on the past, I felt afraid.

    我一回顾过去,就感到害怕。

    5 look down on/upon 瞧不起;轻视

    1She looks down upon/on people who’ve never been to university.

    他瞧不起没上过大学的人。

    2He was looked down on because of poverty in the past.

    过去,他因贫穷而被人瞧不起。

    6 look for 寻找;期待

    1What are you looking for?

    你在找什么?

    2We shall be looking for an improvement in your study this term.

    我们期待你这学期学习进步。

    7 look forward to 盼望

    1We’re so much looking forward to seeing you again.

    我们非常盼望再见到你。

    2I have been looking forward to hearing from you.

    我一直盼望着收到你的来信。

    8 look like 看起来像;好像要;看起来似乎

    1He looks so much like his father.

    他看起来很像他父亲。

    2Those robots look like toys.

    那些机器人看起来像玩具。

    9 look on/upon…as… 把…看作;认为

    例如:I’m always looking on him as my friend. But he isn’t.

    我一直把他看作是我的朋友,但他并非如此。

    10 look out 注意;朝外看

    1Look out! There comes a car.

    注意!汽车来了。

    2They are looking out of the window.

    他们正向窗外看。

    11 look over 浏览;检查

    1Would you please look over my essay?

    请你浏览一下我的论文好吗?

    2We must look over the house before we decide to rent it.

    我们必须先查看一下这房子再决定租不租。

    13 look through 查阅;温习;通过…看

    1She looked through her notes before the examination.

    考试前她匆匆地看了一下笔记。

    2Always look your homework through before handing it in.

    交作业前一定要仔细检查。

    14 look up 查找;抬头看;好转

    1Look up the word in the dictionary.

    在词典里查查这个单词。

    2She is looking up his number in the directory.

    她正在电话号码簿里找他的号码。

    3The girl is looking up at the stars in the sky.

    那女孩正仰望着天上的星星。

    7. at the speed of…

    at the speed of…以…的速度

    例如:The car is running at the speed of 50 kilometers an hour.

    小车以每小时50公里的速度行驶。

    2We are walking at the speed of five miles an hour.

    我们正以每小时5英里的速度步行。

    【相关链接】

    1 at full speed 全速;开足马力

    2 at top speed 以最高的速度

    3 at a high speed 高速

    4 at a very slow speed 以很慢的速度

    8. get in

    get in 进去(入);到达;收割

    1The door was locked, so we couldn’t get in.

    门锁上了,所以我们不能进去。

    2The train got in five minutes earlier.

    火车早五分钟到站。

    3The peasants are busy getting in crops.

    农民正忙于收割庄稼。

    9. fold up

    fold up折起;打包;(使)弯腰;倒下

    1He folded the letter up and put it into an envelope.

    他折起信,把它放在信封里。

    2I like to fold up the presents in pretty paper我喜欢把礼物用漂亮的纸包起来。

    3What a pity! The boxer has folded up with great pain.

    真可惜啊!那位拳击手痛苦地倒下了。

    10. be likely to (do)

    be likely to do)很可能(做)

    1It isn’t likely to rain.

    天不大像要下雨。

    2She’s very likely to ring me tonight.

    她今晚很可能给我打电话。

    3He works hard at his studies. He is likely to pass the college entrance examination.

    他一向学习努力,他很可能考上大学。

    11. keep… out (of)

    keep… out of不使…进入…;避开…

    1Keep that dog out of my study.

    别让那条狗进入我的书房。

    2You’d better keep out of their quarrel.

    你最好别介入他们的争吵。

    12. on show

    on show陈列着;在展览中

    1All the new products are on show at the exhibition.

    展览会上正陈列着所有的新产品。

    2The new model cars are now on show.

    新型的汽车现在正在展示中。

    (三)难句分析

    1. No, not any more.

    不, 不再免费了。

    【解析】 not any more作“不再…”表示过去的情况不再继续。结合上文来看,本句是No, it’s not free any more.的省略。

    1:——Do you still work in the Science Museum?

    ——No, not any more. =No, I do not work there any more.

    你仍然在科学博物馆工作吗?不,我已经不在那儿工作了。

    2:——Is the Children’s Park free?

    ——No, not any more. It used to be free but now you have to pay.

    儿童公园不要门票吧?不,不再免费了。过去不要门票,现在要了。

    2. First, it must be very light, the lighter the better, because it has to be sent up into space by a rocket.

    首先,它必须很轻,越轻越好,因为卫星须得用火箭把它送入太空。

    【解析】 句中的the lighter the better是插入语作“越轻越好”解。这种the+adj./adv.的比较级(+主语+谓语),the+adj./adv.的比较级 +主语+谓语) 表示“越…,越…”

    1The sooner, the better. 越快越好。

    2The more, the better. 愈多愈好。

    3The higher a plane flies, the smaller it looks.

    飞机飞得越高,就显得越小。

    3. Once the satellite goes into its orbit round the earth, the panels are unfolded in order to catch the sunshine.

    一旦卫星进入地球轨道,帆板就打开来吸收阳光。

    【解析1】 句中once是连词,作“一旦…(就)…”解,用以连接一个表示时间的状语从句(相当于as soon as…)。

    1You will love the beautiful place once you get there.

    一旦你到了那里,你就会爱上那个美丽的地方。

    2Once you understand the rule, you will have no further difficulty.

    一旦你理解了这条规则,你就不会再有困难了。

    【解析2】 动词unfold(展开)和fold(折叠)是一对反义词。

    1He opened the envelope and unfolded the letter.

    他拆开信封,把信展开。

    2He folded the letter and put it in an envelope.

    他把信叠好,装入信封。

    注意:once还可以作副词,可以作“一次”、“曾经一度”、“过去(有一次)”解。

    1I used to get a letter from my friend once a week.

    我过去每周收到女朋友一封来信。

    2The song was once very popular.

    这首歌曾经一度很流行。

    4. It is therefore possible to say not only what the weather is like at present, but also what is likely to happen in the next day or two.

    因此,它不仅可以报告当前的天气情况,而且可以预报末来一两天内天气可能会发生的情况。

    【解析1】 It is possible to say… 是一个由it作形式主语的句子,真正的主语是不定式短语to say… 随后的两个what-clause 都是不定式to say的宾语从句,由not only…but also连接。

    【解析2】 what is likely to happen…中的likely是表语形容词,作“很可能的”解,后面常跟不定式短语,构成be likely to do sth.结构。

    1A storm is likely to come tonight.

    今晚很可能有一场暴风雨要来。

    2That is not likely to happen.

    那不大可能发生。

    注意:likelyprobable的意思相同,都作“很有可能的”解,但前者常用于口语。这两个词在词义上同possible稍有区别:possible作“有可能的”解,而likelyprobable作“很有可能的”解。也就是说,likelyprobable的“可能性”的程度比possible大,语气比possible强。

    例如:It’s possible but not probable/likely that she’ll come here next month.

    她有可能下月来这里,但不肯定。

    5. I’m planning to do… 计划做…

    1We’re planning to visit Hong Kong this October.

    今年十月,我们准备去访问香港。

    2I am planning to give you a lecture on how to study Japanese.

    我计划给你们作一次如何学习日语的演讲。

    注意:句子谓语用一般进行时是表示主语的一种很近的计划行为。

    例如:We are going fishing tomorrow.

    我们明天去钓鱼。

    6. I’d rather (not) do… 我宁愿(不)做…

    1In my opinion I’d rather not say what I think at the meeting.

    我的意思,我宁愿在会上不说出我内心所想的。

    2:—— How about a drink?

    —— I’d rather have something to eat.

    —— A cup of tea?

    —— No, thanks. I would rather not.

    ——来杯饮料怎样?

    ——我宁愿吃点东西。

    ——喝杯咖啡吗?

    ——不,谢谢。我不想喝。

    (四)语法精讲

    介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

    1. 概述

    对单纯由关系代词或关系副词引导的定语从句,学生比较容易使用和掌握。但在我们的英语学习中往往会遇到由一个介词+关系代词引导的限制性或非限制性定语从句,如果疏忽大意将介词丢掉,这个句子的意义就含糊不清。

    例如:The only thing that/which he remembered was the number by which he was called in the language lab, which was “Two, Code C.”

    他只记得在语言室被喊叫的号码,这就是“代号C2号”。

    这句话中有三处关系代词的用法。第一处thatwhich可省略,作动词remember的宾语,是单纯关系代词;第二处by which的先行词也是number,但它前面加了介词by;第三处which的先行词为number,在非限制性定语从句中作主语,即the number was “Two, Code C”,也是单纯关系代词。请看下面两句话:

    His number is 2. 他的号码是2

    Please call him by the number. 请叫他的号码。

    句①his number用作主语,句②里the numberby的宾语,但整个by短语是句子的方式状语,意为“按号码称呼”。

    由此可知,上述第二处by which在句中代表的是He was called by the number,如果去掉by,则成了He was called the number,意思就说不通了。

    2. 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句中关系代词的使用原则

    引导定语从句的关系代词常见的有who; whom; whose; which; that等。这些关系代词能在定语从句中作动词及介词宾语的有who; whom; whichthat.。但that作介词宾语时,介词不能放在它之前。因此,由于结构上的限制,介词+关系代词结构只有“介词+which (表物)”和“介词+whom (表人)”两种。

    1The pencil with which he was writing is broken.

    他在写字的那支铅笔断了。

    2This is the book for which you asked.

    这是你要的书。

    3I don’t know the old worker to whom I gave the umbrella yesterday.

    我不认识我昨天给他雨伞的那位老工人。

    4Wu Dong, with whom I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much.

    我跟吴东一起去听音乐会,他很喜欢那场音乐会。

    3. 介词+关系代词结构所表示的意义

    介词+关系代词在定语从句中能充当以下几种成分:

    1 宾语

    例如:This is the book at which he has been looking.

    这就是他一直在盯着的书。

    注意:当一个介词与相到诶的动词是一个习惯短语时(即当介词与动词分开后, 原来的动词短语意义已不存在), 这个介词通常不提前。

    例如:This is the patient who is looked after by her.

    这位病人就是由她在护理。

    2 定语

    例如:The Big Ben is the largest clock in the world, of which the minute hand is six metres long.

    大本钟是世界上最大的时钟,其分钟长达6

    3 各种状语

    ①代替which; thatwho

    例如:The man from whom I’ve learned a lot is a model worker.

    我从他那儿学到很多的那个人是一个模范工人。

    ②代替when; where; why引导定语从句,分别表示时间、地点、原因等。

    1I’ll never forget the day when =on which I joined the Party.

    我永远不会忘记我入党的那天。

    2Do you remember the place where =at which we met our English teacher the day before yesterday?

    你记得我们前天遇见英语老师的那个地方吗?

    3This is the reason why =for which we must go now.

    这就是我们现在必须走的原因。

    4 偶尔作表语

    例如:Present at the conference were many important people, among whom was the President.

    出席会议的有许多大人物,其中就有总统。

    among whom was the President系倒装语序的定语从句,主语是President, among whom起表语作用)。

    4. 介词+关系代词结构的几点注意事项

    ⑴“介词+关系代词”结构既可引导限制性定语从句,也可引导非限制性定语从句。

    1There is a rocket motor by which the direction of the satellite can be changed.

    卫星上装有能改变其运行方向的火箭发动机。

    2The factory has 3,000 workers, of whom about 1,000 are women.

    这个工厂有三千工人,其中大约一千是女工。

    ⑵“介词+关系代词”结构中的介词可以是in; on; about; from; with; to; at; against; through; by means of; because of等;这时关系代词只能用whom; which,不能用that

    1They are the girls with whom I go to school every day.

    他们就是每天和我一起上学的姑娘们。

    2Water boils at 100, at which temperature it changes to gas.

    水在100度沸腾,变成蒸气。

    3He was disappointed at his failure, because of which he was criticized.

    他事没办成显得沮丧,他也因此受到了批评。

    ⑶“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选用需按句意或词的搭配关系而定。

    1He is the man for whom I enjoy working. whom前用for是根据句意“为…”而决定的)。

    他是那种我愿意为他工作的人。

    2He is the man with whom I enjoy working. whom前用with是根据句意“t和…一起”而决定的)。

    他是那种我喜欢和他一块工作的人。

    ⑷在“介词+关系代词”结构中,which可单独作定语,而whom则不能。

    1I called her by the wrong name, for which mistake I apologized. which修饰mistake

    我把她的名字叫错了,为此我道了歉。

    2Jane spent four years in college, during which time, she studied medicine. which修饰名词time

    简上了四年大学,在这期间她学医学。

    ⑸“介词+关系代词”后接不定式短语相当于一个定语从句。

    1Tom is a pleasant young man with whom to work.= Tom is a pleasant young man to work with.

    汤姆是个能与其一块快乐工作的小伙子。

    2I have no money with which to buy a car.=I have no money to buy a car with.

    我没钱买车。

    注意:以上两句不可分别写为:

    Tom is a pleasant young man whom to work with.

    I have no money which to buy a car with.

    可见,把关系代词移至句末,必须省去关系代词,不然就不符合英语习惯。

    (五)交际用语

    Intentions and Wishes (表达意向和愿望)

    1. What do you feel like doing…? I feel like…

    你想要干什么?我想要……

    2. Personally, I’d rather not do…

    就我而言,我(不)宁愿……

    3. What would you like to do? I’d like…

    你想要什么东西?我想要……

    4. What do you plan to do?

    你计划做什么?

    5. I’m planning to do…

    我正(将)计划做……

    6. I want/intend/wish/plan to…

    我想/打算/愿意/计划做……

    7. Have you decided to…?

    你已经决定……?

    8. I haven’t decided what to do.

    我还没有决定做什么。

    二、活学活用

    请根据所学知识和提示补全下面几段对话。

    A

    背景提示:本周星期天你准备干什么?

    A: Hi, Mike. What are you going to do this Sunday?

    B: 1 I hear that a foreign film is on at the cinema right now. Would you like to go with me?

    A: 2

    B: Gone With The Wind (乱世佳人).

    A: Oh, this film is very good, but I have seen it twice. 3

    B: Then, I will ring Jack to see if he will go with me.

    A: 4

    B: 5

    B

    背景提示:你何时去何地度假?

    A: When are you going to take your vacation?

    B: I have got a ten-day vacation starting from July 15.

    A: 6

    B: Hawaii.

    A: 7 Are your whole family going?

    B: Yes. We plan to climb the mountains, go fishing, and go swimming. My wife is taking a bunch of books to read.

    A: 8

    B: Yes, they are. They’ve already crossed out the days on the calendar. Do you intend to go to Europe again this summer?

    A: No, not this time. We want to visit some old friends in New York. 9

    B: Thank you. 10

    三、写作快速通关

    1. 国外佳作欣赏

    The Gift of Life

    On the very first day, God created the cow. He said to the cow, “Today I have created you! As a cow, you must go to the field with the farmer all day long. You will work all day in the sun! I will give you a life span of 50 years.

    The cow objected , “What? This kind of tough life you want me to live for 50 years? Let me have 20 years, and the other 30 years I’ll give back to you.”

    So God agreed.

    On the second day, God created the monkey. He said to the monkey, “Monkeys have to entertain people. You’ve got to make them laugh and do money tricks. I’ll give you a 20-year life span.”

    The monkey objected, “What? Make them laugh? Does monkey make faces and tricks? Ten years will do, and the other 10 years I’ll give back to you.”

    So God agreed.

    On the third day, God created the dog. God said to the dog, “What you are supposed to do is to sit all day by the door of your house. When a person comes in, you will have to bark at him! I’ll give you a life span of 20 years.”

    The dog objected, “What? All day long to sit by the door? No way! I give you back my other 10 years of life!”

    So God agreed.

    On the fourth day, God created man and said to him, “Your job is to sleep, eat and play. You will enjoy very much in your life. All you need to do is to enjoy life and do nothing. This kind of life, I’ll give you a 20-year life span.”

    The man objected, “What? Such a good life! Eat, play, sleep, do nothing. Enjoy the best and you expect me to live only for 20 years? No way! Why don’t we make a deal? Since the cow gave you back 30 years, the monkey gave you back 10 years, the dog gave you back 10 years, I will take them from you! That makes my life span 70 years, right?”

    So God agreed.

    And that’s why … In our first 20 years, we eat, sleep, play, enjoy the best and do nothing much. For the next 30 years, we work all day long, suffer and get to support the family. For the next 10 years, we entertain our grandchildren by making monkey faces and monkey tricks. And for the last 10 years, we stay at home, sit by the front door and bark at people!

    Notes: life span 寿命 make a deal 做一笔交易

    2、日积月累

    1 高考常用词语

    create vt. 创造 object vt. 反对 entertain vt. 娱乐; 使有趣 suffer vi. 受苦; 遭……罪

    support vt. 支持; 赡养 ten years will do 十年就可以了 be supposed to do 应该……

    No way! 没门! make faces

    2 写作素材积累

    看图作文的书面表达

    近年高考的书面表达题基本上都是看图作文。写好看图作文,必须做到下列五到位。

    1. 理解到位:仔细推敲每幅图的大意 (或根据已给的短文的第一句),整体把握一组图的连贯性理解及题目要求,确定思维范围,如人物对象;知识范围,语法结构、时态、词汇和句型等。

    2. 要点到位:用一个简单句写出每幅图的主题句。这样可以保证不会因遗漏而丢分。

    3. 细节到位:对每幅图的主题句进行扩写、补充每幅图的次要内容(时间、地点、方式、原因等),基本保证短文对词汇量的要求。

    4. 表达到位:按情节发展先后,整理成文。有效地使用语句间的连接成分。承上启下运用必要的连接词来体现较强的语言应用能力,使全文紧凑。

    5. 检查到位:对照各图,看是否覆盖了所有内容要点,检查全文完稿。

    3、高考演习

    请用英语写一份120字左右的电脑使用说明,要点如下:

    1 把电脑保存在凉爽、干燥的房间里。太热或太冷都对电脑有害。

    2 请勿在电脑附近抽烟,因为它对电脑的许多部件无益而且会导致许多问题。

    3 请勿在电脑附近吃喝,渗入键盘(keyboard)中的水也会引起许多麻烦。

    4 务必让键盘和屏幕处于合适的高度,否则你会背痛。

    5 务必保持屏幕清洁,也不要让它太耀眼。屏幕太亮会对眼睛有害。

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

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    四、海外风情

    A Tipping in the west

    Tipping customs in the west vary considerably from country to country , from one part of a country to another, and from small town to large city. There are no absolute rules; most people give between 15 to 20 percent of the bill depending on how much service they have had, how many people have been involved, how long they have been at a place, how much they have enjoyed it and where they are.

    Fifteen percent in big cities indicates minimal satisfaction; 20 percent means something a bit more than that. Outside major cities, 15 percent is still the common tip. And the normal tipping coin for small services is the quarter 25 cents.

    People you DO tip in the West are:

    Waiters, taxi drivers, porters, doormen, hatcheck girls. You also tip for personal services from barbers, shoeshine boys, beauty parlor attendants, and so on. You tip delivery people and parking lot attendants if they have parked your car and fetched it for you. Unfortunately many employers of these workers underpay, considering tips to be part of the wages. If one does not tip, therefore, one is harming the worker.

    People you DO NOT tip include:

    1. Customs officials and other government employees such as policemen or firemen. This is considered bribery.

    2. Mailmen. You do not tip them, but you do give them a Christmas gift of $5 to $10 each.

    3. Airline personnel. No tips to stewards, stewardess, or ticket agents.

    4. Bus drivers. Except if they also serve as guides on guided tours—then give them $1 with a “Thank you ”as you leave.

    5. Store clerks.

    6. Gas station attendants.

    7. Elevator operators, receptionists, or telephone operators.

    8. Employees in private clubs.

    9. Theatre ushers or movie ushers. You do, however, tip ushers at sports events.

    Christmas is special and expensive for tipping. If one lives in an apartment house where there are doormen, one should give each one of them a gift of $5 of more at Christmastime. The amount will vary depending on how long one has been living there, the size of one’s family, and how many other tips one has given throughout the year. At Christmas also the superintendent of one’s apartment house should be given a gift of $15 or more. Christmas tips are normally given also to the laundryman, newspaper boy, milkman, parking lot attendant, postman, hairdresser or barber. There is some leeway depending on how often they have done the service, how friendly they are, and one’s own economic level.

    (一)西方的小费

    在西方,国与国之间,一个国家内的地方与地方之间,小镇与大城市之间,给小费的习惯有着相当大的差别。给小费没有绝对的规定。大多数人根据他们所得的服务多少、涉及的人数多少、逗留时间的长短、喜欢的程度以及身处何地,付给帐单金额15%20%的小费。

    在大城市,15%的小费表明是最低标准,20%的小费要更体面些。大城市之外,付给15%的小费仍是常事。通常给予微小服务小费是1/4美元,即一个25美分的硬币。

    在西方,你需要给小费的人员有:

    招待人员、出租车司机、行李搬运工、看门人、衣帽间侍女。你还需给那些提供私人服务的人员小费。他们是:理发师、擦皮鞋男孩、美容院服务员等。对送货上门的人和为你停车、取车的停车场服务人员,你也要给他们小费。不幸的是,这些服务人员的雇主工钱付得低,认为小费也是他们的工资。所以,如果不给他们小费,就等于损害了他们的利益。

    不需要给小费的人员包括:

    1. 海关人员和政府雇员,如警察或消防人员。给他们小费被视为行贿。

    2. 邮政人员。你不必给他们小费。但是你要给他们价值5 10美元的圣诞礼物。

    3. 客机机组人员。无需给机上服务人员、空中小姐或售票人员小费。

    4. 公共汽车司机。但是,如果他们兼作旅游中的导游,下车时该给他们1美元小费,顺便道声“谢谢”。

    5. 商店职员。

    6. 加油站服务人员。

    7. 开电梯人员、接待人员或者话务员。

    8. 私人俱乐部雇员。

    9. 剧场或电影院引座员。不过,若是观看体育比赛,需要给引座员小费。

    圣诞节是特殊的节日,小费开销相当高。若住设有看门人的公寓大楼内,圣诞节期间需要给他们每人5美元以上的礼物。给小费的多少取决于在那里住了多久、家庭的大小,以及一年来给过多少其他的小费等。圣诞节时,还需要给公寓楼管理员15美元以上的礼物。另外,通常还要给洗衣房服务员、送报童、送奶人、停车场服务员、邮递员、理发师等以圣诞小费。小费的多少取决于他们提供服务的经常性、友好的程度,以及自己的经济条件。

    B The British rules for the eye contact

    In dealing with strangers the rule for British society is that you must avoid staring at them but at the same time. Passing strangers in the street, for example Figure l, you may look at the approaching strangers until they are about eight feet away, then your glances must veer away as they pass. Generally speaking strangers feel comfortable looking at one another at a distance. The closer the proximity the greater the tendency to avoid eye contact. This can readily be observed in the confines of a crowded lift where strangers’ glances fly from one spot to another or become absorbed in the finer points of the ceiling’s construction.

    Turning from strangers to those who are communicating with one another, British practice demands eye contact Figure 2. There is a saying in English, “Don’t trust anyone who won’t look you in the eye.” Not looking at the person could imply a number of things, including fear, contempt, uneasiness, guilt or indifference. Even for a lecturer addressing his audience there is plenty of eye contact. To bury one’s nose in one’s manuscript is frowned upon. This is not to say that people talking to one another will look directly into one another’s eyes all the time. British people normally look at the other person’s eyes much longer when they are listening than when speaking. When they are about to stop speaking and start listening they look at the other person’s eyes to signal they are about to change role. A person speaking who does not wish to yield the floor to someone who wishes to speak will often deliberately look away so that the

    would-be speaker cannot catch his eyes.

    Staring at people is considered rude in Britain and young children will be reprimanded by their parents if they look too long and too intensely at another person. Many English people traveling to some countries find being looked at intensely an unnerving experience because of his early training and their culture’s definition of it as being rude and unwelcoming.

    (二)英国人目光接触的行为准则

    在英国社会中,与陌生人打交道的行为规则是必须避免盯着人家看,但与此同时又要避免视而不见。比如你在街上遇到陌生人,你可以看着渐渐走近的陌生人直到他们离你约有8英尺远(约合2.5)。在他们经过你时,你必须将目光转离他们。通常说来陌生人之间有一段距离时,互相看看不会产生什么不安之感。而彼此之间的距离越近越应避免目光接触。这一点我们在一个拥挤的电梯内可以一目了然。乘电梯的陌生人或是瞟来瞟去或是凝视天花板的细微之处,但决不彼此盯着看。

    让我们把话题从陌生人转向正在交谈的交流者。对于交谈的双方,英国的行为规则要求有目光接触。英语中有句谚语,“不要相信不愿看你眼睛的人。”不看对方有多种含意,包括害怕、蔑视、不安、内疚或无所谓等。即使是一个在公众面前讲话的演讲者也要和他的听众有许多目光接触。埋头读稿是不可取的。但这并不是说相互交谈的人必须自始至终直视对方。通常英国人在倾听的时候注视对方的时间要比讲话的时候要长一些。当他们即将说完准备听对方说时,他们会注视对方表示该交换角色了。一个侃侃而谈的人如果不想让对方开口——尽管对方的确想说什么——他会故意转移目光,不让对方的目光与自己的接触。

    目光紧盯别人不放在英国被认为是无礼的,如果小孩子看别人的时间过长,目光过于热切,会遭到父母的训斥。许多英国人外出旅行到一些国家时,常有被人盯着而颇感不安的经历,这是因为他们从小受到的教育和他们的文化都表明盯着他人看是无礼的、不友好的行为。

    五、单元测试

    (一) 单项填空

    1. ——I feel like _____ my job. What about you?

    ——I’d rather _______.

    A. changing; not B. changing; not to C. to change; not change D. to change; not to

    2. ——There are ______ such books here.

    ——I only need ______ these books on this shelf.

    A .eight dozens; one dozen B .eight dozens of; one dozen of

    C .eight dozen; one dozen D .dozens of; one dozen of

    3. The old wooden house ______ his grandfather’s study, but now it _______ farm tools.

    A .used to being; is used to store B. used to be; used to storing

    C. used to be; is used to store D. were used to be; is used to storing

    4. ——I think I can’t achieve my aims.

    ——In my opinion, you shouldn’t ______ such a task.

    A. attempt B. have attempted C. manage D. have managed

    5. _______ the pull of the earth, a rocket must reach a speed of nearly 30,000 kilometers an hour.

    A. Escaping B. In order to escape C. So as to escape D. To have escaped

    6. Such animals as tiger and lion in the zoo must be _______ the cages.

    A. kept out of B. kept from C. kept up D. kept away

    7. _______ a decision is made, you must ______.

    A. Once; carry it out B. When; carry out it

    C. As soon as; work out it D. After; carry it on

    8. ______ I know, we have no lesson this afternoon.

    A. So far as B. So well as C. So long as D. As well as

    9. The police said that they would _____ further ______ the matter.

    A. come; into B. see; through C. look; into D. look; at

    10. ——Does the medicine work?

    ——No. _______ I take, ______ I feel.

    A. More; worse B. The less; the worse C. The more; the worse D. The more; the better

    11. The classrooms _______ windows are broken will be repaired in the summer holidays.

    A. their B. of which C. which D. whose

    12. ——What do you think _______ to him if he goes on like this?

    ——It’s hard to tell. He is always so careless.

    A. is possible to happen B. will be happen

    C. is likely to happen D. take place

    13. ——Shall I come tomorrow?

    ——I’d rather you ________.

    A. didn’t B. won’t C. don’t D. wouldn’t

    14. Africa ­­­­­­­is _______ with Asia at the spot where the Suez Canal was dug.

    A. joined B. united C. connected D. content

    15. She is the very girl _______ we attempted to get some information about the new machine.

    A. for which B. from whom C. on whom D. of which

    (二) 完形填空

    It was five days before Christmas. Holiday music played over the sound system and my co-workers excitedly 1 their plans. “Doing anything special?” they asked me. I shook my head 2 .

    I was 3,000 miles from my family in Hawaii, pursuing my lifelong 3 of becoming a nurse. I attended classes all day, then went straight to my full time 4 job at night. My weekly plan left me extremely tired and homesick.

    I had 5 looked forward to the holidays. But this December I felt unable to go on. In my prayers I told 6 that I could just get home to see my mum, dad and brothers. I could survive the next two years until I graduated. But 7_ ? Rent, textbooks and other expenses left me with no 8 cash. Money to go home? I barely had money to eat.

    “I’m on my 9_ . Cover for me, will you?” asked Maribelle, another waitress, as she 10 me on her way to the employee’s room.. “ 11 , there’s this guy at table five,” she said. “He’s been sitting there for more than an hour, not making any trouble but not 12 anything either.” She paused. “It’s like he’s… 13 somebody.

    I looked in the corner. Sure enough, there was a slim, pleasant-looking 14_ , 15 in a worn shirt, and a black baseball cap, just sitting, _16 . I went over, trying to force a smile. “I’m Cory.” I said. “Please let me know if you want anything.”

    I was turning to walk away _17 the man spoke. He had a soft, low voice, but somehow I could hear it clear and plain in the 18 restaurant. “I’d like an order of chips,” he said , “and a glass of water.” My heart 19 . Chips were the cheapest thing on the menu, which meant I wouldn’t get much of a 20 . But maybe this guy was broke, and I sure know how that felt. So I tried my best to make him feel okay.

    1. A. prepared B. called C. discussed D. carried out

    2. A. loudly B. heavily C. hardly D. lightly

    3. A. plan B. dream C. thinking D. hardship

    4. A. waitress B. baby-sitter C. cleaner D. teacher

    5. A. never B. ever C. hardly D. little

    6. A. teacher B. classmates C. my friend D. God

    7. A. how B. plan C. thought D. dream

    8. A. amounts B. little C. few D. enough

    9. A. work B. thing C. break D. customers

    10. A. walked B. ran C. passed D. left

    11. A. Look B. Watch C. Take care D. Go

    12. A. eating B. having C. buying D. ordering

    13. A. looking for B. waiting for C. finding D. watching

    14. A. student B. girl C. woman D. man

    15. A. / B. having C. dressing D. putting

    16. A. smile B. silent C. laughing D. worried

    17. A. as soon as B. when C. just D. since

    18. A. crowded B. big C. small D. good

    19. A. sank B. excited C. hit D. beat

    20. A. charge B. tip C. money D. income

    (三) 阅读理解

    A )

    Health Service in Britain

    Any country has good reason to want its citizens to be as healthy as possible, and this leads to the introduction of a health service in many countries. Britain has developed into a country in which all citizens can get most of the health treatment free. The money for this is partly from the people who are willing to offer.

    But there are different opinions about the Health Service. The number of patients treated every year and the cost of treatment are much greater than expected. This means that the people who work for the Health Service——doctors, nurses and other hospital workers——have much more work to do, and as a result they have little time for preventive treatment.

    However, the tough problem is that, as many people are able to receive treatment more expensive than they can pay, sometimes people go and visit their doctors when they don’t really need to. As there are so many patients, doctors cannot spend time long enough with each patient. So some people prefer to pay for their own treatment so that their doctors can examine them more carefully. In fact, some rich people feel that they should pay so that more free money would be given to other citizens.

    1. In the Health Service, doctors and nurses _________.

    A. don’t treat patients patiently. B. like to do preventive treatment

    C. get little pay for their work D. are very busy treating patients

    2. Some people go to see the doctors even when they don’t need __________.

    A. to get necessary protective treatment B. to take back some expensive medicine

    C. to receive treatment free of charge D. to keep themselves more healthy

    3. Why do some patients prefer to pay for their own treatment?

    A. To receive better service from the doctor. B. To be more seriously examined.

    C. To get more expensive medicine D. To spend time long enough with the doctor.

    4. What can we infer from the passage?

    A. All the European countries have set up health services.

    B. The Health Service is a great satisfaction to the British people.

    C. There is much room to improve the Health Service in Britain.

    D. All the rich people in UK offer money for the Health Service.

    B

    You’ve probably heard of a lot about the Internet, but what is it?

    The Internet is a computer network that uses the telephone system to connect together millions of computers around the world.

    Maybe that isn’t very exciting but once you’re connected to the Internet, there are lots and lots of different things you can do. You can send electronic messages or “email” to your friends as long as they’re on the Internet, too, or you can sort through all kinds of information on something called the World Wide Web www 世界信息网).

    You don’t need to know how the Internet works in order to use it, but if you understand the basics it may help you work out any technical problems you haveand of course you can help your friends with your Net knowledge!

    You may think that your telephone is just for talking. But as long as you have the equipment, you can use a telephone line to send computer data (数据) as well as sounds. If you connect your computer with the telephone system it can receive information from, and send information to other computers as long as they are connected with the telephone system, too.

    Because there is not an organization which operates the Internet, no one exactly knows how many people are connected to it. It’s thought that there could be 60 million people on the Net, connected up to over 15 million computers!

    5. If you want to join the Internet, you need, first of all, to __________.

    A. learn how to operate a computer B. know how to make telephone call

    C. have a telephone D. learn how to type on a computer

    6. You can keep in touch with your friends by email. The condition is that ___________.

    A. they also have their own telephone

    B. they also have their own computers

    C. you have already known their telephone numbers

    D. they are also connected to the Internet

    7. According to the writer, it’s better ___________.

    A. to work out its technical problems besides using the Internet

    B. to use the Internet besides working out its technical problems

    C. to sort through all kinds of information on WWW

    D. to help your friends with your Net knowledge

    8. With both your computer and telephone, you can ___________.

    A. see the other’s face while calling up B. receive information from other computers

    C. send information to other computers D. B and C

    9. If you are connected to the Internet right now, you could be number ___________.

    A. 15,000,001 B. 60,000,001 C. 1,500,001 D. 6,000,001

    C

    Television, or TV, the modern wonder of electronics, brings the world into your own home in sight and sound. The name “television” comes from the Greek word “tele”, meaning “far”, and the Latin word “videre”, meaning “to see”. Thus, television means “seeing far”. Sometimes television is referred to as “video”, from a Latin word meaning “I see”. In Great Britain, the popular word for television is “telly”.

    Television works in much the same way as radio. In radio, sound is changed into “electromagnetic waves (电磁波)” which are sent through the air. In TV, both sound and light are changed into electromagnetic waves. Experiments leading to modern television took place more than a hundred years ago. By the 1920s, inventors and researchers had turned the early theories into working models. Yet it took another thirty years for TV to become an industry.

    As an industry, TV provides jobs for hundreds of thousands who make TV sets and broadcasting equipment. It also provides work for actors, technicians, and others who put on programs. As an art, television brings the theatre and other cultural events into the home.

    10. From which language is the word “television” taken?

    A. Greek and English. B. Greek, Latin and English.

    C. Greek and Latin. D. The passage doesn’t tell us.

    11. Television is different from radio by changing ______ into electromagnetic waves.

    A. sound B. light C. sound and light D. either sound or light

    12. Which of the following is TRUE?

    A. The TV industry started in the middle of the 19th century.

    B. TV provides so many jobs for workers, actors, technicians and so on.

    C. TV has taken the place of the cinemas and theatres.

    D. The early TV theories came into being in the 1920s.

    13. The title for the passage is “ __________”.

    A. Televisionthe Modern Wonder of Electronics B. The First Television

    C. How the Word “Television” Came into Being D. The History of Television

    D

    The City of London

    Nearly all the old City of London was burned down in the fire of 1666. It started on a Sunday evening in a bread shop. On Tuesday evening, a quarter of a million people had no homes, and the fire was still burning.

    The old St Paul’s Cathedral, there for a thousand years before that, went in the fire. The Cathedral you see today was built by Sir Christopher Wren. There is also a monument to the fire, near Eastcheap, where the fire started, and you can climb up it and look down on the city. Or, if you feel like climbing, you can go up the 627 stairs to the top of St Paul’s and look at the new city from there.

    After the fire of London, some Londoners made new homes in new parts of London. Others wanted to come back, but found the new houses too expensive. The city started to lose its people and then, when the railways came, it was even easier to work in the city and live outside it. In the Second World War, many homes in the city were destroyed by bombs.

    So now the city has very few shops and homes. The streets are full of thousands of offices, and only the street names make you think of the people who used to live there, and bought their food in Fish Street and Bread Street and Milk Street.

    Some people do live in the new big blocks of flats near the Barbican one of the old Roman gates, but often they only sleep there, and go away for weekends. The shops are shut on Saturdays, and the restaurants and pubs shut at six o’clock in the evening. If you go into the city at eight o’clock at night, you feel you are in dead city, while a kilometer away, the streets of the West End are full of people. It seems a sad end.

    14. The word “went” in the second paragraph means _______.

    A. remained B. stood up

    C. burnt down D. partly destroyed

    15. Why didn’t some Londoners return to the new city of London?

    A. These people had lost their interests to the city of London.

    B. They found that the price of the new houses was too high for them to buy.

    C. Some new railways’ operating made it easier for them to work outside the city and live in it.

    D. The city had got only a few shops and houses in it.

    E

    A visitor visits an island where two tribes live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other always lies. The truth-tellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truth-teller or not by asking only one problem. He asks the native, “Go and ask the native in the distance which side of the island he lives on.” When the messenger returns, he says, “He said he lives on the western side of the island.”

    Is the messenger a truth-teller or not? How can the visitor be sure?

    16. According to the messenger’s answer the visitor can conclude that .

    A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth.

    B The messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie.

    C. It’s hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth-teller or not.

    D. The messenger probably lives on the western side of the island because his answer maybe true.

    17. The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong?

    A. He may live on the eastern side of the island. B. He may live on the western side of the island.

    C. He may be telling the truth. D. He can’t be telling the truth.

    18. The visitor himself doesn’t go and ask the question of that native in the distance because ______.

    A. he is sure that the native beside him is a truth-teller.

    B. he wants to decide which side of the island the messenger lives on according to his answer to the question

    C. he wants to decide which side of the island that native in the distance lives on according to the messenger’s answer

    D. he wants to know whether the native beside him is a truth-teller or not

    19. If the visitor goes to ask the native in the distance himself and decide which side of the island he lives on, the cleverest question should be ______.

    A. Which side of the island do you live on? B. Do you live on the western side of the island?

    C. You live on this island, don’t you? D. Do you always tell lies or tell the truth?

    20. Which title of the following is the best?

    A. Visiting a Strong Island B. A Funny Story

    C. A Clever Question. D. The Visitor and the Messenger

    (四) 短文改错

    Last week was my first Thanksgiving of my own 1____________

    house. I have never cooked thanksgiving dinner 2____________

    before, so I wanted to be special. I spent what 3____________

    seemed like forever cooking, and to my surprised 4____________

    it came out looking perfectly! I realized that I 5____________

    had forgotten soft drinks at the store so I ran out 6____________

    to get it before guests arrived. I was away for no 7____________

    more than fifteen minutes. However, when I 8____________

    returned back, I found my turkey on the floor 9____________

    surrounded by a greedy cat and dog with turkey 10___________

    bits in their mouths.

    Unit 15 A famous detective

    本单元重点单词

    detective n. 侦探 affair n. 事;事情

    relative n. 亲属;亲戚 delay vt. 推迟;耽搁

    quarrel vi. 争吵;吵架. whistle n. 口哨;口哨声

    pillow n. 枕头 nail vt.&n. 钉;钉子

    chest n. 箱子;盒子;胸 metallic adj. 金属的

    fasten vt. 扎牢;扣住 furniture n. 家具(总称)

    armchair n. 扶手椅 pet n. 爱畜;宠物

    doubt vt. 怀疑;疑惑 niece n. 侄女;甥女

    strike vi.&vt. 打;击;敲;罢工 blow vt. 击;打击;吹

    scream vi.&n. 尖叫 snake n.

    tiny adj. 极小的;微小的 nephew n. 侄子;外甥

    本单元重点短语

    pay a visit to … 访问;拜访 in silence 沉默地;无声地

    connect to 连接;相连 see to 照顾;照料

    pick up sb. 接某人上车;中途搭车;捡起;接收(节目)

    thank sb. for doing sth. 感激某人做某事 a great number of… 大量;许多

    personal affairs 私人事务 seem to be doing… (行为举止)看起来一直

    keep pets 养宠物 from that moment on 从那时起

    turn to… 转向;求助于;开始(做);把…译为

    break into 破门而入 be supposed to 应该;被期望

    go on and on 继续 learn sth. by heart 背诵

    say goodbye to… 向…说再见;告别

    take off 带走;脱下;除去;离开;起飞

    be sentenced to death 被判死刑

    一、精彩回放

    (一)重点单词

    1. affair

    用法一 n. 事情(既可指大事,也可指小事)

    1The premiers are discussing state affairs.

    总理们正在商讨国家大事。

    2It’s not my affair.

    那不是我的事。

    【相关链接】

    1) incident n. 事件;事情(指引发争端或战争的事物,也可指个人的事)

    例如: Xi’an Incident occurred on December 12, 1936.

    西安事变发生在19361212日。

    2) event n. 事件(指国家、党派等发生的重大事件,尤指历史事件)

    例如:It was quite an event when a woman first became prime minister.

    首次由女人任首相倒是件大事。

    3) business n. 事务(不用复数形式)

    1Let’s go down to business first.

    让我们先谈正事吧。

    2What business have you here?

    你来干什么?

    4) matter n. 事情(为一般用语,是需要解决处理的事情)

    例如:What’s the matter with her?

    她怎么了/出什么事了?

    5) thing n 事情;事物(一般不指特定的事,大事、小事、好事、坏事都可以用其表示)

    1Saying is one thing, but doing is another.

    说是一回事,而做又是一回事。

    2. relative

    【用法】n. 亲属;亲戚

    1My aunt is my only immediate relative.

    我姑母是我唯一的至亲。

    2Professor Smith is my near relative. Tom is a distant relative of mine.

    史密斯教授是我的近亲,汤姆是我的一位远亲。

    3A relative far off is less help than a neighbour close by.

    远亲不如近邻。(谚语)

    【相关链接】

    1) relation n. 亲属(指抽象意义的亲属或血缘关系,是不可数名词,常与to连用)

    1:——Is he any relation to you?

    ——No, he is no relation to me.

    他是你的亲戚吗?不,他跟我毫无亲戚关系。

    2What relation are you to each other?

    你们彼此之间是什么亲属关系?

    2) relations n. 关系;联系;交往

    1Relations between them are rather difficult at present.

    目前他们之间的关系有些紧张。

    2We should develop friendly relations between the two countries.

    我们应该发展两国之间的友谊关系。

    3. delay

    用法一 n. 耽搁,延误;推迟;延期

    1After a delay of three days, the conference has begun at last.

    会议推迟三天后终于召开了。

    2The patient must be operated on without delay.

    这病人必须立即动手术。

    用法二 vt.& vi. 耽搁,延误;推迟;延期

    1I was delayed by the traffic.

    塞车让我耽误了。

    2 The train was delayed two hours.

    火车晚点两小时。

    3We have to delay holding the meeting because our manager is out.

    由于经理不在,我们不得不延期召开这个会。

    【相关链接】

    1 without delay 毫不迟延地

    例如:Goods should be sent without delay.

    货物必须立即送走。

    2) delay doing sth. 延误做某事(delay后接动名词,不接动词不定式)

    例如:He delayed answering the letter because of his illness.

    他因病推迟了回信。

    3) delay sth. 把…推迟

    例如:They have decided to delay the meeting until next Friday.

    他们已经决定把会议延期到下周星期五召开。

    4) put off 延期;推迟

    1The meeting has been put off until next week.

    会议延期到下周。

    2They put off the picnic because of the rain.

    因下雨他们将野餐延期。

    4. quarrel

    【用法一】 n. 争吵;吵架;怨言

    1I had a quarrel with my sister about who should do the housework.

    我和我姐为了谁应做家务的事吵了一架。

    2I have no quarrel against/with him.

    我对他并没有怨言。

    【用法二】 vt. 争吵;吵架;埋怨

    1She often quarrels with her husband about money.

    她经常因为钱跟她爱人吵架。

    2A bad workman quarrels with his tools.

    人笨埋怨刀钝。(谚语)

    5. whistle

    【用法一】 n. 口哨(声);叫子

    1The referee blew his whistle.

    裁判吹响了哨子。

    2He gave a loud whistle of happiness.

    他兴奋得大声吹了一声口哨。

    【用法二】 v. 吹口哨

    1The boy was whistling happily all the time.

    那男孩一直快乐地吹着口哨。

    2He whistled a happy tune as he walked along.

    他边走边用口哨吹着快乐的曲子。

    【用法三】 v. 鸣笛;发出似口哨声迅速移动

    1The train whistled and steamed off.

    火车鸣笛喷气开动了。

    2A bullet whistled past his head.

    一颗子弹嗖的一声从他头上经过。

    6. chest

    【用法一】 n. 箱子;盒子

    1The doctor hurriedly went to see the patient with her medicine chest.

    医生带着药箱匆匆地看病人去了。

    2All my books are kept in this chest.

    我所有的书籍都放在这个盒子里。

    【用法二】 n. 胸;胸部

    1What size are you round the chest?

    你的胸围是多少?

    2I’ve got a pain in my chest.

    我胸部很痛。

    7. dare

    用法一 v. aux. 竟敢,敢于(后接不带to的不定式。主要用于疑问句、否定句、条件状语从句或表示疑问的句子中。

    1I dare not ask him why he spent so much money on it.

    我不敢问他为什么他在那件事情上花了那么多钱。

    2No one dared say that to his face.

    没人敢当他的面讲。

    用法二 vt. 竟敢,敢于,敢于面对 (后接带to的不定式,在否定句中,to 可省略)。

    1We’ll dare any hardship and danger.

    我们敢于面对任何艰难与危险。

    2Nobody will dare to cheat him.

    没人敢骗他。

    用法三 vi.

    例如:Try it again, if you dare.

    若你敢的话,就再试一次。

    用法四 n. 常与devil连用,意为“冒失鬼”

    例如:What a dare-devil you are!

    你真是一个冒失鬼。

    相关链接

    1 I dare say 我想,我估计(在句中作主句或插入语)。

    例如:The boy, I dare say, can get the first prize.

    我估计,那个男孩会获得一等奖。

    2 dare sb. to do sth. (估计某人没有胆量做某事而)挑逗;打赌

    例如:We dared him to jump from this bridge into the river.

    我们量他没有胆量从桥上跳入河里。

    8. fasten

    用法一 v. 使某物牢固;固定某物

    1Please fasten your seat-belts.

    请系好安全带。

    2Have you fastened all the doors and windows?

    你把所有门窗都关严了吗?

    用法二 v. 使某物联接在一起;系住某物

    1Fasten up your coat.

    把你的大衣系好。

    2The tent flaps (【帘布】 should be tightly fastened.

    帐篷的帘布应该紧紧系住。

    用法三 v. 使某物固定在另一物上;将两物牢牢联结在一起

    1Please fasten a lock on to the door.

    请把门用锁锁好。

    2Please fasten two sheets of paper together with a pin.

    请用大头针把两张纸别在一起。

    相关链接

    tie 系;结;缚;绑;捆;拴((某物)

    1Shall I tie the parcel or use sticky tape?

    我把包裹捆上还是用胶带粘上?

    2Please tie the dog to the lamp-post.

    请把狗拴在灯柱上。

    9. furniture

    【用法】 n. 家具

    1Wood can be used to make all kinds of furniture.

    木头可以用来做各种各样的家具。

    2This old Chinese china is a very valuable piece of furniture.

    这件古老的中国瓷器是一件很有价值的家具。

    10. doubt

    用法一 n. 怀疑;疑惑;不确定

    1There’s no room for doubt.

    没有怀疑的余地。

    2I have no doubt that you will succeed.

    我肯定你能成功。

    【用法二】 vt. 疑惑;怀疑

    1I don’t doubt that he will come.

    我确信他会来。

    2I doubt the truth of this report.

    我怀疑这个报道的真实性。

    3It is human to doubt.

    怀疑是人的天性。

    【相关链接】

    1) beyond a/any/all doubt无疑地

    例如:She was beyond all doubt the finest actress of her day.

    她无疑是她那个时代最优秀的演员。

    2) in doubt不肯定的;不确定的

    例如:When in doubt the meaning of a word, turn to a dictionary.

    你不能确定一个字的意思时就去查查字典。

    3) no doubt 无疑地

    例如:No doubt he means to help, but in fact he just gets in the way.

    很可能他确实是想帮忙,然而事实上却只是帮倒忙。

    4) without doubt 无疑地;确实地

    例如:Without a doubt this is the best.

    无可置疑,这是最好的。

    5) throw doubt (up)on 怀疑…;使人对…产生怀疑

    例如:Don’t throw doubt upon the matter.

    对那件事勿容置疑。

    6) doubt of (or about) 怀疑

    例如:I doubt of my success. doubtvi.

    我怀疑自己能否成功。

    注意:doubt当名词用,分别用that/whether引导同位语从句;doubt当动词用,没有进行时态,分别用that/whether引导宾语从句。

    11. strike

    用法一 n. 罢工

    例如:The ship builders went out on strike for higher pay.

    造船工人为提高工资而举行了罢工。

    用法二 v. 打;击;碰;.

    1Why did you strike your son?

    你为什么那么狠地打你儿子?

    2The clock has just struck three.

    时钟刚敲过三点。

    3Strike while the iron is hot.

    趁热打铁。(谚语)

    用法三 v. 突然想到;给予…印象;打动;感动

    1What struck me was their spirit for the work.

    他们的工作精神使我感触颇深。

    2It suddenly struck me how we could improve the situation.

    我突然想到一个办法可以让我们改进这种局面。

    3His suggestion at once struck the manager.

    他的建议立刻引起了经理的注意。

    用法四v. 罢工;罢课

    1Workers struck against unemployment.

    工人们为失业进行罢工。

    2The union has voted to strike for a pay increase of 10%.

    工会投票决定为要求提高工资10%而举行罢工。

    用法五v. 藉磨擦产生(火花、亮光等)

    1He struck a match and lit a cigarette.

    他划了一根火柴点燃了一支烟。

    2These damp matches won’t strike.

    这些潮湿的火柴划不着。

    用法六 v. (灾害、疾病)袭击

    1An insect pest fatal to cotton had struck the crop.

    棉花遭受了一种致命的虫害。

    2The typhoon struck just as the rice was ripe for harvesting.

    稻谷正待收割时遭到了台风袭击。

    【相关链接1

    1 be on a strike 在罢工中

    例如:They are on strike.

    他们在罢工。

    2 go on a strike 进行罢工

    例如:The bus drivers are going on a strike.

    公共汽车司机正在罢工。

    3 strike at 打击

    例如:We should avoid the enemy’s main forces and strike at his weak spots.

    我们要避开敌人的主力,打击他们的弱点。

    相关链接2

    1 beat v. (指有目的地在某物上连续不断的击打或心脏的跳动、比赛中击败对方)

    1The thief was beaten black and blue.

    那个小偷被打得鼻青脸肿。

    2My heart beats faster after running.

    跑步之后我的心跳加快。

    2 hit v. (强调猛地一击、击败)

    1The police hit the thief on the head.

    警察击中了小偷的头部。

    2I was hit by a falling stone.

    我被落下的石头击中了。

    12. seat

    用法一 n. 位子,座位;所在地,中心地

    1Let’s change seats.

    我们换换座位吧。

    2The back seat of the car is wide enough for three people.

    汽车的后座很宽,可以坐三个人。

    3In China, Beijing is the seat of government.

    在中国,北京是政府所在地。

    用法二 vt. 使坐下;使就坐

    1The mother seated the baby on sofa and went out.

    母亲把小孩放在沙发上坐好就出去了。

    2Seat the boy next to his brother.

    让那个孩子坐在他哥哥旁边。

    用法三 vt. 构成be seated, 表示状态

    1Please be seated, =Please seat yourself=Take/Have a seat please. ladies and gentlemen.

    女士们,先生们,请就坐。

    2Entering the classroom, I found him seated at the back row.

    走进教室,我发现他坐在后排。

    用法四 vt. 供给…座位;能容纳

    例如:This hall will seat 500 people.

    这个大厅可容纳500人。

    相关链接

    sit vi. 坐;坐下

    1Sit down, please.=Please be seated.

    请坐下。

    2The teacher and the students sat talking for an hour.

    师生坐着交谈了一个小时。

    (二)重要词组

    1. see to

    see to照顾;照料;处理;负责

    1There is something wrong with my computer. Will you see to it?.

    我的计算机出毛病了,你来来修理一下好吗?

    2I’ve got some personal affairs that I have to see to.

    我有些私事要处理。

    相关链接

    1 see for oneself 自己看;体验一下

    1This is a good method. Try it and see for yourself.

    这是一个很好的办法,试着体验一下。

    2If you don’t believe it’s snowing, come here and see for yourself.

    你们要是不相信下雪了,你们自己来看一看。

    2 see into 调查;了解

    1The manager said he would see into the matter himself.

    经理说他要亲自去调查此事。

    2He has promised to see into the problem for me.

    他已答应帮我去了解那个问题。

    3 see …off 给…送行;送别

    1Don’t worry. I’ll see you off.

    别担心,我来送你。

    2 All his friends were at the airport to see him off last night.

    昨天晚上他的所有朋友在机场为他送行。

    4 see through 看透(穿);识破;进行到底

    1He immediately saw through what I had in mind.

    他马上看透了我的心思。

    2I can see through your little game.

    我已经看穿了你的鬼把戏。

    5 see you later again, etc 再见

    1That’s right. See you tomorrow.

    好,明天见。

    6 take care of 照顾;照料;照管

    例如:My sister is taking care of the children while we’re away.

    我们不在的时候由我妹妹照看孩子。

    7 look after 照顾;照看;照管

    例如:Father is away, who will look after your grandpa?

    父亲不在,谁将照顾你爷爷呢?

    2. no matter

    no matter不要紧;没关系

    1It’s no matter that he didn’t come.=It doesn’t matter that he didn’t come.

    他没有来,这没什么关系。

    2I had something to say, but it’s no matter.

    我本来有几句话要说的,不过那没什么要紧的。

    3. pick up

    pick up捡起;接某人上车;中途搭车;接收(节目、信号);通过实践学会…

    1It is very difficult for a short-sighted man to pick up a nail from the ground.

    近视眼的人要从地上把钉子捡起来是十分困难的。

    2Most drivers always attempt to pick up more passengers. It’s dangerous, though.

    尽管很危险,大多数司机总是试图在路途接更多的旅客。

    3The equipment picked up the signal from the satellite.

    这设备收到了卫星发出的信号。

    4The children have picked up the local accent.

    孩子们都学会了当地口音了。

    相关链接

    pick out 挑选;拔出;辨别

    1As a gift for my birthday, Father picked out a home-made camera for me.

    父亲挑选了一部照相机作为我的生日礼物。

    2We picked out the weeds among the rice.

    我们把稻子中的杂草拔掉。

    4. turn to… 转向;求助于;开始(做);

    1You can always turn to me for help.

    你可随时来找我帮忙。

    2She has nobody she can turn to.

    她求助无门。

    3The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink.

    他情绪越低落越是借酒浇愁。

    相关链接

    1 turn about 转向

    例如:He turned about and faced me.

    他转过身面朝我。

    2 turn against 反对;反抗

    例如:She turned against her old friend.

    她与老朋友反目成仇了。

    3 turn around round 旋转

    例如:The earth turns around the sun.

    地球绕着太阳运转。

    4 turn aside from 让开;躲开;转过脸去

    1He turned aside to allow those who were waiting to pass by.

    他让到一旁,让正在等候的人先过去。

    2She is very shy. After the speech was over, she turned aside immediately.

    她很害羞,发言结束后,她立即把脸转过去。

    5 turn away 拒绝帮助;不许进入

    1She turned away in horror at the sight of so much blood.

    她一看见这么多血就立刻吓得转过脸去。

    2Hundreds of people had to be turned away from the stadium because it was full.

    由于满座,数以百计的人被体育馆拒之门外。

    6 turn back 返回;退回

    1It’s getting dark. We’d better turn back.

    天快黑了,我们最好回去吧。

    2He wants to turn back the ticket.

    他想退票。

    7 turn down 拒绝;减弱

    1Don’t forget to turn down the radio.

    别忘记把收音机的声音调低。

    2He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health.

    他想参军,但因身体不好被断然拒绝。

    8 turn in 交;上交;归还

    1You must turn in your gun before you leave the army.

    退伍时你应将枪支上缴。

    2You’d better turn in the money that you found.

    你最好把捡到的钱上交。

    9 turn into 变成

    1We can turn the water into ice.

    我们可以把水变成冰。

    2All the buildings were turned into schools.

    所有的建筑都改成医院了。

    10 turn off 关;关上;失去兴趣

    1Mum, I forgot to turn off the television.

    妈妈,我忘了关电视机了。

    2They have turned off the water while they mend a burst pipe.

    他们修理爆裂的水管时,关上了水闸。

    11 turn on 打开;使激动;有兴趣

    例如:Turn on the gas and light the oven.

    打开煤气开关点燃烤箱。

    12 turn out 熄灭;关;生产;证明;结果

    1He turned out to be the son of an old friend.

    他原来是一位老朋友的儿子。

    2The job turned out to be harder than we had expected.

    这工作结果比我们预计的要难。

    13 turn over翻转;考虑;移交

    1Thr farmer is turning over the soil for crops.

    那农民在翻整土地准备种庄稼。

    2My father turned over the problem for two hours.

    我父亲对这个问题考虑了两个小时。

    3The pocket thief is being turned over to the police station.

    那个扒手正被移交给派出所。

    14 turn up增长;出现;向上翻;

    1Investment is turning up sharply.

    投资额急剧增长。

    2We arranged to meet at the cinema at 7:30, but he failed to turn up.

    我们约定7:30在电影院见面,但他没来。

    3He turned up his coat collar against the strong wind.

    他竖起大衣领抵御大风。

    5 break into

    break into破门而入

    1the bank was broken in into last night.

    昨晚这家银行遭劫了。.

    2Excuse me for breaking in like this.

    请恕我就这样进来打扰你们。

    【相关链接】

    1) break away (from) 摆脱与…的关系;逃跑;破除;革除

    1The prisoner broke away from his guards.

    囚犯从他的哨兵手中逃跑了。

    2We must break away from bad habits, such as smoking, drinking, etc.

    我们必须革除坏习惯,诸如抽烟酗酒等。

    2) break down 出毛病;不运转

    例如:The telephone system has broken down.

    电话系统失灵了。

    3) break forth 迸发

    例如:A shout of joy broke forth.

    突然发出欢快的叫声。

    4) break in 闯入;插话;打断

    例如:I wish you wouldn’t break in on our conversation.

    我希望你不要打断我们的谈话。

    5) break off 中断谈话;停顿

    例如:He broke off in the middle of a sentence.

    他一句话只说了一半就停住了。

    6) break out (战争、火灾、疾病等)爆发;突然发生

    例如:The big forest fire must have broken out after 12 p.m. last night.

    那场森林大火一定是昨晚12点后发生的。

    7) break through 突破;打破

    例如:The river broke through its banks and flooded fields.

    河水冲垮了大堤淹没了田野。

    8) break up 破碎;瓦解;结束;终止

    1The ship broke up on the rocks.

    船触礁撞坏了。

    2They decided to break up the partnership.

    他们决定终止合作关系。

    6. from that moment on

    from that moment on从那时起

    例如:From that moment on they sat there in silence.

    从那时起,他们就默不作声地坐在那儿。

    【相关链接】

    1) from then on 从那时起

    例如:From then on he got up early and do morning exercise.

    从那时起,他就起得早并且做早操。

    2) from that time on 从那时起

    例如:From that time on he showed great interest in radio.

    从那时起,他对无线电就感兴趣了。

    3) from now on 从现在起

    例如:From now on you are my students.

    从现在起,你们就是我的学生了。

    注意:”from+时间+on”表示“从…(时间)起”的意思。如:from today on (从今天起);from tomorrow on (从明天起)

    7. be supposed to do…

    be supposed to do…本应该…;理应…

    1She was supposed to be reading at home, but her mother found her in the park.

    她本来应该在家里读书的,但她妈妈发现她在公园里。

    2Lu Xun was supposed to be a doctor. But he became a famous writer.

    鲁迅本该是当医生的,但他却成了一位有名的作家。

    8. learn sth. by heart

    learn sth. by heart背诵;背熟;熟记

    1We must learn new words by heart.

    我们必须背诵生词。

    2It’s no use learning the text by heart without understanding it.

    不加理解地死背课文是没用的。

    9. take off

    take off脱下;离开;起飞;取消;请假

    1Won’t you take off your coat and hat?

    请把外衣和帽子脱下好吗?

    2She never took her eyes off me.

    她老是用眼盯着我。

    3Three planes took off at the same time.

    三架飞机同时起飞了。

    4When his father was ill he took off from work.

    他父亲生病时,他请了事假。

    【相关链接】

    1 take advantage of 利用

    例如:The man often took advantage of her lack of business knowledge to cheat her.

    这人常利用她缺乏商业知识欺骗她。

    2 take care 注意;留神

    例如:This instrument is made of glass, so take care not to break it.

    这件仪器是用玻璃制造的,注意不要把它打碎。

    3 take a chance 冒险;碰运气

    例如:She’ll have to take her chance with the other applicants for the job.

    她必须靠碰运气与其他的求职者竞争那份工作。

    4 take charge of 负责;管理

    例如:My elder brother will have to take charge of the work.

    我哥哥将不得不负责这项工作了。

    5 take hold of 抓住

    例如:The third blind man happened to take hold of the elephant’s trunk.

    第三个盲人恰好抓住大象的鼻子。

    6 take …for granted 认为当然;想当然

    例如:I take it for granted that you’ll be coming to the meeting.

    我认为你当然会来开会的。

    7 take notes 做笔记

    例如:He took notes at the lecture.

    他在听讲座时记了笔记。

    8 take notice of 注意;理会

    例如:Take notice of the road signs.

    注意道路标志。

    9 take place 发生;举行

    例如:In the United States, the election for president takes place once in four years.

    在美国,每四年举行一次总统选举。

    10 take the place of 代替;接替

    例如:It would be difficult to find a man to take the place of the present manager.

    要找一个人代替现任经理大概是很困难的。

    11 take the shape of 呈…的形状

    例如:Our earth takes the shape of a very big ball.

    我们的地球呈巨大的球形。

    12 take one’s place 就座;取得地位

    例如:His name has taken its place in history.

    他名垂青史。

    13 take part in 参加

    例如:We’re going to take part in the discussion tomorrow.

    明天我们将参加讨论。

    14 take a risk 冒险

    例如:If someone wants to succeed in business, he must be prepared to take risk.

    如果一个人想在商业上有所建树,他必须做冒险的打算。

    15 take turns 轮流

    例如:She and her elder sister took turns at sitting up with their sick mother.

    她与她的姐姐轮流守夜陪伴她们生病的妈妈。

    16 take one’s turn 轮班;排队

    例如:People are taking their turns to get on a bus.

    当人们在上公共汽车时依次排队。

    17 take as… 把…看作;把…作为

    例如:Will you take me as your partner?

    你愿意把我当作你的伙伴吗?

    18 take away 拿走;带走

    例如:He took away my English-Chinese dictionary.

    他拿走了我的英汉词典。

    19 take back 还回;收回

    例如:Will you take these books back to the library?

    你把这些书归还图书馆好吗?

    20 take down 记下

    例如:He took down the speech in shorthand.

    他用速记记下了那篇演说。

    21 take for… 把…错认为

    例如:He is often taken for a foreigner.

    他常常被误认为是外国人。

    22 take in 包括;

    例如:The list takes in everybody.

    名单上包括所有的人。

    23